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Open-Vocabulary Object Detection Using Captions2020-11-20   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Despite the remarkable accuracy of deep neural networks in object detection, they are costly to train and scale due to supervision requirements. Particularly, learning more object categories typically requires proportionally more bounding box annotations. Weakly supervised and zero-shot learning techniques have been explored to scale object detectors to more categories with less supervision, but they have not been as successful and widely adopted as supervised models. In this paper, we put forth a novel formulation of the object detection problem, namely open-vocabulary object detection, which is more general, more practical, and more effective than weakly supervised and zero-shot approaches. We propose a new method to train object detectors using bounding box annotations for a limited set of object categories, as well as image-caption pairs that cover a larger variety of objects at a significantly lower cost. We show that the proposed method can detect and localize objects for which no bounding box annotation is provided during training, at a significantly higher accuracy than zero-shot approaches. Meanwhile, objects with bounding box annotation can be detected almost as accurately as supervised methods, which is significantly better than weakly supervised baselines. Accordingly, we establish a new state of the art for scalable object detection.
Iterative Bounding Box Annotation for Object Detection2020-07-02   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Manual annotation of bounding boxes for object detection in digital images is tedious, and time and resource consuming. In this paper, we propose a semi-automatic method for efficient bounding box annotation. The method trains the object detector iteratively on small batches of labeled images and learns to propose bounding boxes for the next batch, after which the human annotator only needs to correct possible errors. We propose an experimental setup for simulating the human actions and use it for comparing different iteration strategies, such as the order in which the data is presented to the annotator. We experiment on our method with three datasets and show that it can reduce the human annotation effort significantly, saving up to 75% of total manual annotation work.
UFO$^2$: A Unified Framework towards Omni-supervised Object Detection2020-10-21   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Existing work on object detection often relies on a single form of annotation: the model is trained using either accurate yet costly bounding boxes or cheaper but less expressive image-level tags. However, real-world annotations are often diverse in form, which challenges these existing works. In this paper, we present UFO$^2$, a unified object detection framework that can handle different forms of supervision simultaneously. Specifically, UFO$^2$ incorporates strong supervision (e.g., boxes), various forms of partial supervision (e.g., class tags, points, and scribbles), and unlabeled data. Through rigorous evaluations, we demonstrate that each form of label can be utilized to either train a model from scratch or to further improve a pre-trained model. We also use UFO$^2$ to investigate budget-aware omni-supervised learning, i.e., various annotation policies are studied under a fixed annotation budget: we show that competitive performance needs no strong labels for all data. Finally, we demonstrate the generalization of UFO$^2$, detecting more than 1,000 different objects without bounding box annotations.
Ensembling object detectors for image and video data analysis2021-02-09   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
In this paper, we propose a method for ensembling the outputs of multiple object detectors for improving detection performance and precision of bounding boxes on image data. We further extend it to video data by proposing a two-stage tracking-based scheme for detection refinement. The proposed method can be used as a standalone approach for improving object detection performance, or as a part of a framework for faster bounding box annotation in unseen datasets, assuming that the objects of interest are those present in some common public datasets.
Deep learning for class-generic object detection2013-12-24   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
We investigate the use of deep neural networks for the novel task of class generic object detection. We show that neural networks originally designed for image recognition can be trained to detect objects within images, regardless of their class, including objects for which no bounding box labels have been provided. In addition, we show that bounding box labels yield a 1% performance increase on the ImageNet recognition challenge.
Leveraging Pre-Trained 3D Object Detection Models For Fast Ground Truth Generation2018-07-16   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Training 3D object detectors for autonomous driving has been limited to small datasets due to the effort required to generate annotations. Reducing both task complexity and the amount of task switching done by annotators is key to reducing the effort and time required to generate 3D bounding box annotations. This paper introduces a novel ground truth generation method that combines human supervision with pretrained neural networks to generate per-instance 3D point cloud segmentation, 3D bounding boxes, and class annotations. The annotators provide object anchor clicks which behave as a seed to generate instance segmentation results in 3D. The points belonging to each instance are then used to regress object centroids, bounding box dimensions, and object orientation. Our proposed annotation scheme requires 30x lower human annotation time. We use the KITTI 3D object detection dataset to evaluate the efficiency and the quality of our annotation scheme. We also test the the proposed scheme on previously unseen data from the Autonomoose self-driving vehicle to demonstrate generalization capabilities of the network.
Generative Modeling for Small-Data Object Detection2019-10-16   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
This paper explores object detection in the small data regime, where only a limited number of annotated bounding boxes are available due to data rarity and annotation expense. This is a common challenge today with machine learning being applied to many new tasks where obtaining training data is more challenging, e.g. in medical images with rare diseases that doctors sometimes only see once in their life-time. In this work we explore this problem from a generative modeling perspective by learning to generate new images with associated bounding boxes, and using these for training an object detector. We show that simply training previously proposed generative models does not yield satisfactory performance due to them optimizing for image realism rather than object detection accuracy. To this end we develop a new model with a novel unrolling mechanism that jointly optimizes the generative model and a detector such that the generated images improve the performance of the detector. We show this method outperforms the state of the art on two challenging datasets, disease detection and small data pedestrian detection, improving the average precision on NIH Chest X-ray by a relative 20% and localization accuracy by a relative 50%.
Class-agnostic Object Detection2020-11-28   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Object detection models perform well at localizing and classifying objects that they are shown during training. However, due to the difficulty and cost associated with creating and annotating detection datasets, trained models detect a limited number of object types with unknown objects treated as background content. This hinders the adoption of conventional detectors in real-world applications like large-scale object matching, visual grounding, visual relation prediction, obstacle detection (where it is more important to determine the presence and location of objects than to find specific types), etc. We propose class-agnostic object detection as a new problem that focuses on detecting objects irrespective of their object-classes. Specifically, the goal is to predict bounding boxes for all objects in an image but not their object-classes. The predicted boxes can then be consumed by another system to perform application-specific classification, retrieval, etc. We propose training and evaluation protocols for benchmarking class-agnostic detectors to advance future research in this domain. Finally, we propose (1) baseline methods and (2) a new adversarial learning framework for class-agnostic detection that forces the model to exclude class-specific information from features used for predictions. Experimental results show that adversarial learning improves class-agnostic detection efficacy.
3D for Free: Crossmodal Transfer Learning using HD Maps2020-08-24   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
3D object detection is a core perceptual challenge for robotics and autonomous driving. However, the class-taxonomies in modern autonomous driving datasets are significantly smaller than many influential 2D detection datasets. In this work, we address the long-tail problem by leveraging both the large class-taxonomies of modern 2D datasets and the robustness of state-of-the-art 2D detection methods. We proceed to mine a large, unlabeled dataset of images and LiDAR, and estimate 3D object bounding cuboids, seeded from an off-the-shelf 2D instance segmentation model. Critically, we constrain this ill-posed 2D-to-3D mapping by using high-definition maps and object size priors. The result of the mining process is 3D cuboids with varying confidence. This mining process is itself a 3D object detector, although not especially accurate when evaluated as such. However, we then train a 3D object detection model on these cuboids, consistent with other recent observations in the deep learning literature, we find that the resulting model is fairly robust to the noisy supervision that our mining process provides. We mine a collection of 1151 unlabeled, multimodal driving logs from an autonomous vehicle and use the discovered objects to train a LiDAR-based object detector. We show that detector performance increases as we mine more unlabeled data. With our full, unlabeled dataset, our method performs competitively with fully supervised methods, even exceeding the performance for certain object categories, without any human 3D annotations.
Comprehensive Attention Self-Distillation for Weakly-Supervised Object Detection2020-10-22   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Weakly Supervised Object Detection (WSOD) has emerged as an effective tool to train object detectors using only the image-level category labels. However, without object-level labels, WSOD detectors are prone to detect bounding boxes on salient objects, clustered objects and discriminative object parts. Moreover, the image-level category labels do not enforce consistent object detection across different transformations of the same images. To address the above issues, we propose a Comprehensive Attention Self-Distillation (CASD) training approach for WSOD. To balance feature learning among all object instances, CASD computes the comprehensive attention aggregated from multiple transformations and feature layers of the same images. To enforce consistent spatial supervision on objects, CASD conducts self-distillation on the WSOD networks, such that the comprehensive attention is approximated simultaneously by multiple transformations and feature layers of the same images. CASD produces new state-of-the-art WSOD results on standard benchmarks such as PASCAL VOC 2007/2012 and MS-COCO.
Weakly Supervised Learning with Region and Box-level Annotations for Salient Instance Segmentation2020-08-18   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Salient instance segmentation is a new challenging task that received widespread attention in saliency detection area. Due to the limited scale of the existing dataset and the high mask annotations cost, it is difficult to train a salient instance neural network completely. In this paper, we appeal to train a salient instance segmentation framework by a weakly supervised source without resorting to laborious labeling. We present a cyclic global context salient instance segmentation network (CGCNet), which is supervised by the combination of the binary salient regions and bounding boxes from the existing saliency detection datasets. For a precise pixel-level location, a global feature refining layer is introduced that dilates the context features of each salient instance to the global context in the image. Meanwhile, a labeling updating scheme is embedded in the proposed framework to online update the weak annotations for next iteration. Experiment results demonstrate that the proposed end-to-end network trained by weakly supervised annotations can be competitive to the existing fully supervised salient instance segmentation methods. Without bells and whistles, our proposed method achieves a mask AP of 57.13%, which outperforms the best fully supervised methods and establishes new states of the art for weakly supervised salient instance segmentation.
Pose Estimation Based on 3D Models2015-06-20   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
In this paper, we proposed a pose estimation system based on rendered image training set, which predicts the pose of objects in real image, with knowledge of object category and tight bounding box. We developed a patch-based multi-class classification algorithm, and an iterative approach to improve the accuracy. We achieved state-of-the-art performance on pose estimation task.
End-to-end Deep Object Tracking with Circular Loss Function for Rotated Bounding Box2020-12-17   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
The task object tracking is vital in numerous applications such as autonomous driving, intelligent surveillance, robotics, etc. This task entails the assigning of a bounding box to an object in a video stream, given only the bounding box for that object on the first frame. In 2015, a new type of video object tracking (VOT) dataset was created that introduced rotated bounding boxes as an extension of axis-aligned ones. In this work, we introduce a novel end-to-end deep learning method based on the Transformer Multi-Head Attention architecture. We also present a new type of loss function, which takes into account the bounding box overlap and orientation. Our Deep Object Tracking model with Circular Loss Function (DOTCL) shows an considerable improvement in terms of robustness over current state-of-the-art end-to-end deep learning models. It also outperforms state-of-the-art object tracking methods on VOT2018 dataset in terms of expected average overlap (EAO) metric.
Labels Are Not Perfect: Improving Probabilistic Object Detection via Label Uncertainty2020-08-10   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Reliable uncertainty estimation is crucial for robust object detection in autonomous driving. However, previous works on probabilistic object detection either learn predictive probability for bounding box regression in an un-supervised manner, or use simple heuristics to do uncertainty regularization. This leads to unstable training or suboptimal detection performance. In this work, we leverage our previously proposed method for estimating uncertainty inherent in ground truth bounding box parameters (which we call label uncertainty) to improve the detection accuracy of a probabilistic LiDAR-based object detector. Experimental results on the KITTI dataset show that our method surpasses both the baseline model and the models based on simple heuristics by up to 3.6% in terms of Average Precision.
Faster Bounding Box Annotation for Object Detection in Indoor Scenes2018-07-03   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
This paper proposes an approach for rapid bounding box annotation for object detection datasets. The procedure consists of two stages: The first step is to annotate a part of the dataset manually, and the second step proposes annotations for the remaining samples using a model trained with the first stage annotations. We experimentally study which first/second stage split minimizes to total workload. In addition, we introduce a new fully labeled object detection dataset collected from indoor scenes. Compared to other indoor datasets, our collection has more class categories, different backgrounds, lighting conditions, occlusion and high intra-class differences. We train deep learning based object detectors with a number of state-of-the-art models and compare them in terms of speed and accuracy. The fully annotated dataset is released freely available for the research community.
Pick-Object-Attack: Type-Specific Adversarial Attack for Object Detection2020-07-13   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Many recent studies have shown that deep neural models are vulnerable to adversarial samples: images with imperceptible perturbations, for example, can fool image classifiers. In this paper, we generate adversarial examples for object detection, which entails detecting bounding boxes around multiple objects present in the image and classifying them at the same time, making it a harder task than against image classification. We specifically aim to attack the widely used Faster R-CNN by changing the predicted label for a particular object in an image: where prior work has targeted one specific object (a stop sign), we generalise to arbitrary objects, with the key challenge being the need to change the labels of all bounding boxes for all instances of that object type. To do so, we propose a novel method, named Pick-Object-Attack. Pick-Object-Attack successfully adds perturbations only to bounding boxes for the targeted object, preserving the labels of other detected objects in the image. In terms of perceptibility, the perturbations induced by the method are very small. Furthermore, for the first time, we examine the effect of adversarial attacks on object detection in terms of a downstream task, image captioning; we show that where a method that can modify all object types leads to very obvious changes in captions, the changes from our constrained attack are much less apparent.
Secost: Sequential co-supervision for large scale weakly labeled audio event detection2020-05-04   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Weakly supervised learning algorithms are critical for scaling audio event detection to several hundreds of sound categories. Such learning models should not only disambiguate sound events efficiently with minimal class-specific annotation but also be robust to label noise, which is more apparent with weak labels instead of strong annotations. In this work, we propose a new framework for designing learning models with weak supervision by bridging ideas from sequential learning and knowledge distillation. We refer to the proposed methodology as SeCoST (pronounced Sequest) -- Sequential Co-supervision for training generations of Students. SeCoST incrementally builds a cascade of student-teacher pairs via a novel knowledge transfer method. Our evaluations on Audioset (the largest weakly labeled dataset available) show that SeCoST achieves a mean average precision of 0.383 while outperforming prior state of the art by a considerable margin.
Scalable Object Detection for Stylized Objects2017-11-29   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Following recent breakthroughs in convolutional neural networks and monolithic model architectures, state-of-the-art object detection models can reliably and accurately scale into the realm of up to thousands of classes. Things quickly break down, however, when scaling into the tens of thousands, or, eventually, to millions or billions of unique objects. Further, bounding box-trained end-to-end models require extensive training data. Even though - with some tricks using hierarchies - one can sometimes scale up to thousands of classes, the labor requirements for clean image annotations quickly get out of control. In this paper, we present a two-layer object detection method for brand logos and other stylized objects for which prototypical images exist. It can scale to large numbers of unique classes. Our first layer is a CNN from the Single Shot Multibox Detector family of models that learns to propose regions where some stylized object is likely to appear. The contents of a proposed bounding box is then run against an image index that is targeted for the retrieval task at hand. The proposed architecture scales to a large number of object classes, allows to continously add new classes without retraining, and exhibits state-of-the-art quality on a stylized object detection task such as logo recognition.
IENet: Interacting Embranchment One Stage Anchor Free Detector for Orientation Aerial Object Detection2019-12-02   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Object detection in aerial images is a challenging task due to its lack of visiable features and variant orientation of objects. Currently, amount of R-CNN framework based detectors have made significant progress in predicting targets by horizontal bounding boxes (HBB) and oriented bounding boxes (OBB). However, there is still open space for one-stage anchor free solutions. This paper proposes a one-stage anchor free detector for orientional object in aerial images, which is built upon a per-pixel prediction fashion detector. We make it possible by developing a branch interacting module with a self-attention mechanism to fuse features from classification and box regression branchs. Moreover a geometric transformation is employed in angle prediction to make it more manageable for the prediction network. We also introduce an IOU loss for OBB detection, which is more efficient than regular polygon IOU. The propsed method is evaluated on DOTA and HRSC2016 datasets, and the outcomes show the higher OBB detection performance from our propsed IENet when compared with the state-of-the-art detectors.
Closing the Generalization Gap in One-Shot Object Detection2020-11-09   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Despite substantial progress in object detection and few-shot learning, detecting objects based on a single example - one-shot object detection - remains a challenge: trained models exhibit a substantial generalization gap, where object categories used during training are detected much more reliably than novel ones. Here we show that this generalization gap can be nearly closed by increasing the number of object categories used during training. Our results show that the models switch from memorizing individual categories to learning object similarity over the category distribution, enabling strong generalization at test time. Importantly, in this regime standard methods to improve object detection models like stronger backbones or longer training schedules also benefit novel categories, which was not the case for smaller datasets like COCO. Our results suggest that the key to strong few-shot detection models may not lie in sophisticated metric learning approaches, but instead in scaling the number of categories. Future data annotation efforts should therefore focus on wider datasets and annotate a larger number of categories rather than gathering more images or instances per category.