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Gated Transformer Networks for Multivariate Time Series Classification2021-03-26   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Deep learning model (primarily convolutional networks and LSTM) for time series classification has been studied broadly by the community with the wide applications in different domains like healthcare, finance, industrial engineering and IoT. Meanwhile, Transformer Networks recently achieved frontier performance on various natural language processing and computer vision tasks. In this work, we explored a simple extension of the current Transformer Networks with gating, named Gated Transformer Networks (GTN) for the multivariate time series classification problem. With the gating that merges two towers of Transformer which model the channel-wise and step-wise correlations respectively, we show how GTN is naturally and effectively suitable for the multivariate time series classification task. We conduct comprehensive experiments on thirteen dataset with full ablation study. Our results show that GTN is able to achieve competing results with current state-of-the-art deep learning models. We also explored the attention map for the natural interpretability of GTN on time series modeling. Our preliminary results provide a strong baseline for the Transformer Networks on multivariate time series classification task and grounds the foundation for future research.
NAST: Non-Autoregressive Spatial-Temporal Transformer for Time Series Forecasting2021-02-10   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Although Transformer has made breakthrough success in widespread domains especially in Natural Language Processing (NLP), applying it to time series forecasting is still a great challenge. In time series forecasting, the autoregressive decoding of canonical Transformer models could introduce huge accumulative errors inevitably. Besides, utilizing Transformer to deal with spatial-temporal dependencies in the problem still faces tough difficulties.~To tackle these limitations, this work is the first attempt to propose a Non-Autoregressive Transformer architecture for time series forecasting, aiming at overcoming the time delay and accumulative error issues in the canonical Transformer. Moreover, we present a novel spatial-temporal attention mechanism, building a bridge by a learned temporal influence map to fill the gaps between the spatial and temporal attention, so that spatial and temporal dependencies can be processed integrally. Empirically, we evaluate our model on diversified ego-centric future localization datasets and demonstrate state-of-the-art performance on both real-time and accuracy.
A Transformer-based Framework for Multivariate Time Series Representation Learning2020-10-06   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
In this work we propose for the first time a transformer-based framework for unsupervised representation learning of multivariate time series. Pre-trained models can be potentially used for downstream tasks such as regression and classification, forecasting and missing value imputation. By evaluating our models on several benchmark datasets for multivariate time series regression and classification, we show that not only does our modeling approach represent the most successful method employing unsupervised learning of multivariate time series presented to date, but also that it exceeds the current state-of-the-art performance of supervised methods; it does so even when the number of training samples is very limited, while offering computational efficiency. Finally, we demonstrate that unsupervised pre-training of our transformer models offers a substantial performance benefit over fully supervised learning, even without leveraging additional unlabeled data, i.e., by reusing the same data samples through the unsupervised objective.
Multi-Faceted Representation Learning with Hybrid Architecture for Time Series Classification2020-12-21   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Time series classification problems exist in many fields and have been explored for a couple of decades. However, they still remain challenging, and their solutions need to be further improved for real-world applications in terms of both accuracy and efficiency. In this paper, we propose a hybrid neural architecture, called Self-Attentive Recurrent Convolutional Networks (SARCoN), to learn multi-faceted representations for univariate time series. SARCoN is the synthesis of long short-term memory networks with self-attentive mechanisms and Fully Convolutional Networks, which work in parallel to learn the representations of univariate time series from different perspectives. The component modules of the proposed architecture are trained jointly in an end-to-end manner and they classify the input time series in a cooperative way. Due to its domain-agnostic nature, SARCoN is able to generalize a diversity of domain tasks. Our experimental results show that, compared to the state-of-the-art approaches for time series classification, the proposed architecture can achieve remarkable improvements for a set of univariate time series benchmarks from the UCR repository. Moreover, the self-attention and the global average pooling in the proposed architecture enable visible interpretability by facilitating the identification of the contribution regions of the original time series. An overall analysis confirms that multi-faceted representations of time series aid in capturing deep temporal corrections within complex time series, which is essential for the improvement of time series classification performance. Our work provides a novel angle that deepens the understanding of time series classification, qualifying our proposed model as an ideal choice for real-world applications.
Multi-Time Attention Networks for Irregularly Sampled Time Series2021-01-25   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Irregular sampling occurs in many time series modeling applications where it presents a significant challenge to standard deep learning models. This work is motivated by the analysis of physiological time series data in electronic health records, which are sparse, irregularly sampled, and multivariate. In this paper, we propose a new deep learning framework for this setting that we call Multi-Time Attention Networks. Multi-Time Attention Networks learn an embedding of continuous-time values and use an attention mechanism to produce a fixed-length representation of a time series containing a variable number of observations. We investigate the performance of our framework on interpolation and classification tasks using multiple datasets. Our results show that our approach performs as well or better than a range of baseline and recently proposed models while offering significantly faster training times than current state-of-the-art methods.
Deep Transformer Models for Time Series Forecasting: The Influenza Prevalence Case2020-01-22   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
In this paper, we present a new approach to time series forecasting. Time series data are prevalent in many scientific and engineering disciplines. Time series forecasting is a crucial task in modeling time series data, and is an important area of machine learning. In this work we developed a novel method that employs Transformer-based machine learning models to forecast time series data. This approach works by leveraging self-attention mechanisms to learn complex patterns and dynamics from time series data. Moreover, it is a generic framework and can be applied to univariate and multivariate time series data, as well as time series embeddings. Using influenza-like illness (ILI) forecasting as a case study, we show that the forecasting results produced by our approach are favorably comparable to the state-of-the-art.
Multivariable times series classification through an interpretable representation2020-09-08   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Multivariate time series classification is a task with increasing importance due to the proliferation of new problems in various fields (economy, health, energy, transport, crops, etc.) where a large number of information sources are available. Direct extrapolation of methods that traditionally worked in univariate environments cannot frequently be applied to obtain the best results in multivariate problems. This is mainly due to the inability of these methods to capture the relationships between the different variables that conform a multivariate time series. The multivariate proposals published to date offer competitive results but are hard to interpret. In this paper we propose a time series classification method that considers an alternative representation of time series through a set of descriptive features taking into account the relationships between the different variables of a multivariate time series. We have applied traditional classification algorithms obtaining interpretable and competitive results.
catch22: CAnonical Time-series CHaracteristics2019-01-30   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Capturing the dynamical properties of time series concisely as interpretable feature vectors can enable efficient clustering and classification for time-series applications across science and industry. Selecting an appropriate feature-based representation of time series for a given application can be achieved through systematic comparison across a comprehensive time-series feature library, such as those in the hctsa toolbox. However, this approach is computationally expensive and involves evaluating many similar features, limiting the widespread adoption of feature-based representations of time series for real-world applications. In this work, we introduce a method to infer small sets of time-series features that (i) exhibit strong classification performance across a given collection of time-series problems, and (ii) are minimally redundant. Applying our method to a set of 93 time-series classification datasets (containing over 147000 time series) and using a filtered version of the hctsa feature library (4791 features), we introduce a generically useful set of 22 CAnonical Time-series CHaracteristics, catch22. This dimensionality reduction, from 4791 to 22, is associated with an approximately 1000-fold reduction in computation time and near linear scaling with time-series length, despite an average reduction in classification accuracy of just 7%. catch22 captures a diverse and interpretable signature of time series in terms of their properties, including linear and non-linear autocorrelation, successive differences, value distributions and outliers, and fluctuation scaling properties. We provide an efficient implementation of catch22, accessible from many programming environments, that facilitates feature-based time-series analysis for scientific, industrial, financial and medical applications using a common language of interpretable time-series properties.
Adversarial Attacks on Multivariate Time Series2020-03-30   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Classification models for the multivariate time series have gained significant importance in the research community, but not much research has been done on generating adversarial samples for these models. Such samples of adversaries could become a security concern. In this paper, we propose transforming the existing adversarial transformation network (ATN) on a distilled model to attack various multivariate time series classification models. The proposed attack on the classification model utilizes a distilled model as a surrogate that mimics the behavior of the attacked classical multivariate time series classification models. The proposed methodology is tested onto 1-Nearest Neighbor Dynamic Time Warping (1-NN DTW) and a Fully Convolutional Network (FCN), all of which are trained on 18 University of East Anglia (UEA) and University of California Riverside (UCR) datasets. We show both models were susceptible to attacks on all 18 datasets. To the best of our knowledge, adversarial attacks have only been conducted in the domain of univariate time series and have not been conducted on multivariate time series. such an attack on time series classification models has never been done before. Additionally, we recommend future researchers that develop time series classification models to incorporating adversarial data samples into their training data sets to improve resilience on adversarial samples and to consider model robustness as an evaluative metric.
Injecting Hierarchy with U-Net Transformers2019-10-16   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
The Transformer architecture has become increasingly popular over the past couple of years, owing to its impressive performance on a number of natural language processing (NLP) tasks. However, it may be argued that the Transformer architecture lacks an explicit hierarchical representation, as all computations occur on word-level representations alone, and therefore, learning structure poses a challenge for Transformer models. In the present work, we introduce hierarchical processing into the Transformer model, taking inspiration from the U-Net architecture, popular in computer vision for its hierarchical view of natural images. We propose a novel architecture that combines ideas from Transformer and U-Net models to incorporate hierarchy at multiple levels of abstraction. We empirically demonstrate that the proposed architecture outperforms the vanilla Transformer and strong baselines in the chit-chat dialogue and machine translation domains.
Explicit Sparse Transformer: Concentrated Attention Through Explicit Selection2019-12-25   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Self-attention based Transformer has demonstrated the state-of-the-art performances in a number of natural language processing tasks. Self-attention is able to model long-term dependencies, but it may suffer from the extraction of irrelevant information in the context. To tackle the problem, we propose a novel model called \textbf{Explicit Sparse Transformer}. Explicit Sparse Transformer is able to improve the concentration of attention on the global context through an explicit selection of the most relevant segments. Extensive experimental results on a series of natural language processing and computer vision tasks, including neural machine translation, image captioning, and language modeling, all demonstrate the advantages of Explicit Sparse Transformer in model performance. We also show that our proposed sparse attention method achieves comparable or better results than the previous sparse attention method, but significantly reduces training and testing time. For example, the inference speed is twice that of sparsemax in Transformer model. Code will be available at \url{https://github.com/lancopku/Explicit-Sparse-Transformer}
Transformer for Image Quality Assessment2020-12-30   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Transformer has become the new standard method in natural language processing (NLP), and it also attracts research interests in computer vision area. In this paper we investigate the application of Transformer in Image Quality (TRIQ) assessment. Following the original Transformer encoder employed in Vision Transformer (ViT), we propose an architecture of using a shallow Transformer encoder on the top of a feature map extracted by convolution neural networks (CNN). Adaptive positional embedding is employed in the Transformer encoder to handle images with arbitrary resolutions. Different settings of Transformer architectures have been investigated on publicly available image quality databases. We have found that the proposed TRIQ architecture achieves outstanding performance. The implementation of TRIQ is published on Github (https://github.com/junyongyou/triq).
Complexity Measures and Features for Times Series classification2020-03-04   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Classification of time series is a growing problem in different disciplines due to the progressive digitalization of the world. Currently, the state of the art in time series classification is dominated by Collective of Transformation-Based Ensembles. This algorithm is composed of several classifiers of diverse nature that are combined according to their results in an internal cross validation procedure. Its high complexity prevents it from being applied to large datasets. One Nearest Neighbours with Dynamic Time Warping remains the base classifier in any time series classification problem, for its simplicity and good results. Despite their good performance, they share a weakness, which is that they are not interpretable. In the field of time series classification, there is a tradeoff between accuracy and interpretability. In this work, we propose a set of characteristics capable of extracting information of the structure of the time series in order to face time series classification problems. The use of these characteristics allows the use of traditional classification algorithms in time series problems. The experimental results demonstrate a statistically significant improvement in the accuracy of the results obtained by our proposal with respect to the original time series. Apart from the improvement in accuracy, our proposal is able to offer interpretable results based on the set of characteristics proposed.
Highly comparative feature-based time-series classification2014-05-08   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
A highly comparative, feature-based approach to time series classification is introduced that uses an extensive database of algorithms to extract thousands of interpretable features from time series. These features are derived from across the scientific time-series analysis literature, and include summaries of time series in terms of their correlation structure, distribution, entropy, stationarity, scaling properties, and fits to a range of time-series models. After computing thousands of features for each time series in a training set, those that are most informative of the class structure are selected using greedy forward feature selection with a linear classifier. The resulting feature-based classifiers automatically learn the differences between classes using a reduced number of time-series properties, and circumvent the need to calculate distances between time series. Representing time series in this way results in orders of magnitude of dimensionality reduction, allowing the method to perform well on very large datasets containing long time series or time series of different lengths. For many of the datasets studied, classification performance exceeded that of conventional instance-based classifiers, including one nearest neighbor classifiers using Euclidean distances and dynamic time warping and, most importantly, the features selected provide an understanding of the properties of the dataset, insight that can guide further scientific investigation.
Learning from Irregularly-Sampled Time Series: A Missing Data Perspective2020-08-17   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Irregularly-sampled time series occur in many domains including healthcare. They can be challenging to model because they do not naturally yield a fixed-dimensional representation as required by many standard machine learning models. In this paper, we consider irregular sampling from the perspective of missing data. We model observed irregularly-sampled time series data as a sequence of index-value pairs sampled from a continuous but unobserved function. We introduce an encoder-decoder framework for learning from such generic indexed sequences. We propose learning methods for this framework based on variational autoencoders and generative adversarial networks. For continuous irregularly-sampled time series, we introduce continuous convolutional layers that can efficiently interface with existing neural network architectures. Experiments show that our models are able to achieve competitive or better classification results on irregularly-sampled multivariate time series compared to recent RNN models while offering significantly faster training times.
PGT: Pseudo Relevance Feedback Using a Graph-Based Transformer2021-01-19   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Most research on pseudo relevance feedback (PRF) has been done in vector space and probabilistic retrieval models. This paper shows that Transformer-based rerankers can also benefit from the extra context that PRF provides. It presents PGT, a graph-based Transformer that sparsifies attention between graph nodes to enable PRF while avoiding the high computational complexity of most Transformer architectures. Experiments show that PGT improves upon non-PRF Transformer reranker, and it is at least as accurate as Transformer PRF models that use full attention, but with lower computational costs.
PatchX: Explaining Deep Models by Intelligible Pattern Patches for Time-series Classification2021-02-11   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
The classification of time-series data is pivotal for streaming data and comes with many challenges. Although the amount of publicly available datasets increases rapidly, deep neural models are only exploited in a few areas. Traditional methods are still used very often compared to deep neural models. These methods get preferred in safety-critical, financial, or medical fields because of their interpretable results. However, their performance and scale-ability are limited, and finding suitable explanations for time-series classification tasks is challenging due to the concepts hidden in the numerical time-series data. Visualizing complete time-series results in a cognitive overload concerning our perception and leads to confusion. Therefore, we believe that patch-wise processing of the data results in a more interpretable representation. We propose a novel hybrid approach that utilizes deep neural networks and traditional machine learning algorithms to introduce an interpretable and scale-able time-series classification approach. Our method first performs a fine-grained classification for the patches followed by sample level classification.
Evaluation of deep learning models for multi-step ahead time series prediction2021-03-26   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Time series prediction with neural networks have been focus of much research in the past few decades. Given the recent deep learning revolution, there has been much attention in using deep learning models for time series prediction, and hence it is important to evaluate their strengths and weaknesses. In this paper, we present an evaluation study that compares the performance of deep learning models for multi-step ahead time series prediction. Our deep learning methods compromise of simple recurrent neural networks, long short term memory (LSTM) networks, bidirectional LSTM, encoder-decoder LSTM networks, and convolutional neural networks. We also provide comparison with simple neural networks use stochastic gradient descent and adaptive gradient method (Adam) for training. We focus on univariate and multi-step-ahead prediction from benchmark time series datasets and compare with results from from the literature. The results show that bidirectional and encoder-decoder LSTM provide the best performance in accuracy for the given time series problems with different properties.
Multivariate Quantile Bayesian Structural Time Series (MQBSTS) Model2020-10-04   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
In this paper, we propose the multivariate quantile Bayesian structural time series (MQBSTS) model for the joint quantile time series forecast, which is the first such model for correlated multivariate time series to the author's best knowledge. The MQBSTS model also enables quantile based feature selection in its regression component where each time series has its own pool of contemporaneous external time series predictors, which is the first time that a fully data-driven quantile feature selection technique applicable to time series data to the author's best knowledge. Different from most machine learning algorithms, the MQBSTS model has very few hyper-parameters to tune, requires small datasets to train, converges fast, and is executable on ordinary personal computers. Extensive examinations on simulated data and empirical data confirmed that the MQBSTS model has superior performance in feature selection, parameter estimation, and forecast.
Hierarchical Transformer Network for Utterance-level Emotion Recognition2020-02-18   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
While there have been significant advances in de-tecting emotions in text, in the field of utter-ance-level emotion recognition (ULER), there are still many problems to be solved. In this paper, we address some challenges in ULER in dialog sys-tems. (1) The same utterance can deliver different emotions when it is in different contexts or from different speakers. (2) Long-range contextual in-formation is hard to effectively capture. (3) Unlike the traditional text classification problem, this task is supported by a limited number of datasets, among which most contain inadequate conversa-tions or speech. To address these problems, we propose a hierarchical transformer framework (apart from the description of other studies, the "transformer" in this paper usually refers to the encoder part of the transformer) with a lower-level transformer to model the word-level input and an upper-level transformer to capture the context of utterance-level embeddings. We use a pretrained language model bidirectional encoder representa-tions from transformers (BERT) as the lower-level transformer, which is equivalent to introducing external data into the model and solve the problem of data shortage to some extent. In addition, we add speaker embeddings to the model for the first time, which enables our model to capture the in-teraction between speakers. Experiments on three dialog emotion datasets, Friends, EmotionPush, and EmoryNLP, demonstrate that our proposed hierarchical transformer network models achieve 1.98%, 2.83%, and 3.94% improvement, respec-tively, over the state-of-the-art methods on each dataset in terms of macro-F1.