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DiscoBox: Weakly Supervised Instance Segmentation and Semantic Correspondence from Box Supervision2021-05-13   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
We introduce DiscoBox, a novel framework that jointly learns instance segmentation and semantic correspondence using bounding box supervision. Specifically, we propose a self-ensembling framework where instance segmentation and semantic correspondence are jointly guided by a structured teacher in addition to the bounding box supervision. The teacher is a structured energy model incorporating a pairwise potential and a cross-image potential to model the pairwise pixel relationships both within and across the boxes. Minimizing the teacher energy simultaneously yields refined object masks and dense correspondences between intra-class objects, which are taken as pseudo-labels to supervise the task network and provide positive/negative correspondence pairs for dense constrastive learning. We show a symbiotic relationship where the two tasks mutually benefit from each other. Our best model achieves 37.9% AP on COCO instance segmentation, surpassing prior weakly supervised methods and is competitive to supervised methods. We also obtain state of the art weakly supervised results on PASCAL VOC12 and PF-PASCAL with real-time inference.
Multi-Evidence Filtering and Fusion for Multi-Label Classification, Object Detection and Semantic Segmentation Based on Weakly Supervised Learning2018-02-25   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Supervised object detection and semantic segmentation require object or even pixel level annotations. When there exist image level labels only, it is challenging for weakly supervised algorithms to achieve accurate predictions. The accuracy achieved by top weakly supervised algorithms is still significantly lower than their fully supervised counterparts. In this paper, we propose a novel weakly supervised curriculum learning pipeline for multi-label object recognition, detection and semantic segmentation. In this pipeline, we first obtain intermediate object localization and pixel labeling results for the training images, and then use such results to train task-specific deep networks in a fully supervised manner. The entire process consists of four stages, including object localization in the training images, filtering and fusing object instances, pixel labeling for the training images, and task-specific network training. To obtain clean object instances in the training images, we propose a novel algorithm for filtering, fusing and classifying object instances collected from multiple solution mechanisms. In this algorithm, we incorporate both metric learning and density-based clustering to filter detected object instances. Experiments show that our weakly supervised pipeline achieves state-of-the-art results in multi-label image classification as well as weakly supervised object detection and very competitive results in weakly supervised semantic segmentation on MS-COCO, PASCAL VOC 2007 and PASCAL VOC 2012.
Weakly Supervised Learning with Region and Box-level Annotations for Salient Instance Segmentation2020-08-18   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Salient instance segmentation is a new challenging task that received widespread attention in saliency detection area. Due to the limited scale of the existing dataset and the high mask annotations cost, it is difficult to train a salient instance neural network completely. In this paper, we appeal to train a salient instance segmentation framework by a weakly supervised source without resorting to laborious labeling. We present a cyclic global context salient instance segmentation network (CGCNet), which is supervised by the combination of the binary salient regions and bounding boxes from the existing saliency detection datasets. For a precise pixel-level location, a global feature refining layer is introduced that dilates the context features of each salient instance to the global context in the image. Meanwhile, a labeling updating scheme is embedded in the proposed framework to online update the weak annotations for next iteration. Experiment results demonstrate that the proposed end-to-end network trained by weakly supervised annotations can be competitive to the existing fully supervised salient instance segmentation methods. Without bells and whistles, our proposed method achieves a mask AP of 57.13%, which outperforms the best fully supervised methods and establishes new states of the art for weakly supervised salient instance segmentation.
Neighbourhood Consensus Networks2018-11-29   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
We address the problem of finding reliable dense correspondences between a pair of images. This is a challenging task due to strong appearance differences between the corresponding scene elements and ambiguities generated by repetitive patterns. The contributions of this work are threefold. First, inspired by the classic idea of disambiguating feature matches using semi-local constraints, we develop an end-to-end trainable convolutional neural network architecture that identifies sets of spatially consistent matches by analyzing neighbourhood consensus patterns in the 4D space of all possible correspondences between a pair of images without the need for a global geometric model. Second, we demonstrate that the model can be trained effectively from weak supervision in the form of matching and non-matching image pairs without the need for costly manual annotation of point to point correspondences. Third, we show the proposed neighbourhood consensus network can be applied to a range of matching tasks including both category- and instance-level matching, obtaining the state-of-the-art results on the PF Pascal dataset and the InLoc indoor visual localization benchmark.
Neural Non-Rigid Tracking2020-06-23   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
We introduce a novel, end-to-end learnable, differentiable non-rigid tracker that enables state-of-the-art non-rigid reconstruction. Given two input RGB-D frames of a non-rigidly moving object, we employ a convolutional neural network to predict dense correspondences. These correspondences are used as constraints in an as-rigid-as-possible (ARAP) optimization problem. By enabling gradient back-propagation through the non-rigid optimization solver, we are able to learn correspondences in an end-to-end manner such that they are optimal for the task of non-rigid tracking. Furthermore, this formulation allows for learning correspondence weights in a self-supervised manner. Thus, outliers and wrong correspondences are down-weighted to enable robust tracking. Compared to state-of-the-art approaches, our algorithm shows improved reconstruction performance, while simultaneously achieving 85 times faster correspondence prediction than comparable deep-learning based methods.
Semi-Supervised Semantic Image Segmentation with Self-correcting Networks2020-02-25   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Building a large image dataset with high-quality object masks for semantic segmentation is costly and time consuming. In this paper, we introduce a principled semi-supervised framework that only uses a small set of fully supervised images (having semantic segmentation labels and box labels) and a set of images with only object bounding box labels (we call it the weak set). Our framework trains the primary segmentation model with the aid of an ancillary model that generates initial segmentation labels for the weak set and a self-correction module that improves the generated labels during training using the increasingly accurate primary model. We introduce two variants of the self-correction module using either linear or convolutional functions. Experiments on the PASCAL VOC 2012 and Cityscape datasets show that our models trained with a small fully supervised set perform similar to, or better than, models trained with a large fully supervised set while requiring ~7x less annotation effort.
Where are the Masks: Instance Segmentation with Image-level Supervision2019-07-02   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
A major obstacle in instance segmentation is that existing methods often need many per-pixel labels in order to be effective. These labels require large human effort and for certain applications, such labels are not readily available. To address this limitation, we propose a novel framework that can effectively train with image-level labels, which are significantly cheaper to acquire. For instance, one can do an internet search for the term "car" and obtain many images where a car is present with minimal effort. Our framework consists of two stages: (1) train a classifier to generate pseudo masks for the objects of interest; (2) train a fully supervised Mask R-CNN on these pseudo masks. Our two main contribution are proposing a pipeline that is simple to implement and is amenable to different segmentation methods; and achieves new state-of-the-art results for this problem setup. Our results are based on evaluating our method on PASCAL VOC 2012, a standard dataset for weakly supervised methods, where we demonstrate major performance gains compared to existing methods with respect to mean average precision.
Weakly Supervised Learning of Instance Segmentation with Inter-pixel Relations2019-05-09   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
This paper presents a novel approach for learning instance segmentation with image-level class labels as supervision. Our approach generates pseudo instance segmentation labels of training images, which are used to train a fully supervised model. For generating the pseudo labels, we first identify confident seed areas of object classes from attention maps of an image classification model, and propagate them to discover the entire instance areas with accurate boundaries. To this end, we propose IRNet, which estimates rough areas of individual instances and detects boundaries between different object classes. It thus enables to assign instance labels to the seeds and to propagate them within the boundaries so that the entire areas of instances can be estimated accurately. Furthermore, IRNet is trained with inter-pixel relations on the attention maps, thus no extra supervision is required. Our method with IRNet achieves an outstanding performance on the PASCAL VOC 2012 dataset, surpassing not only previous state-of-the-art trained with the same level of supervision, but also some of previous models relying on stronger supervision.
Matching neural paths: transfer from recognition to correspondence search2017-11-05   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Many machine learning tasks require finding per-part correspondences between objects. In this work we focus on low-level correspondences - a highly ambiguous matching problem. We propose to use a hierarchical semantic representation of the objects, coming from a convolutional neural network, to solve this ambiguity. Training it for low-level correspondence prediction directly might not be an option in some domains where the ground-truth correspondences are hard to obtain. We show how transfer from recognition can be used to avoid such training. Our idea is to mark parts as "matching" if their features are close to each other at all the levels of convolutional feature hierarchy (neural paths). Although the overall number of such paths is exponential in the number of layers, we propose a polynomial algorithm for aggregating all of them in a single backward pass. The empirical validation is done on the task of stereo correspondence and demonstrates that we achieve competitive results among the methods which do not use labeled target domain data.
Open-Vocabulary Object Detection Using Captions2020-11-20   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Despite the remarkable accuracy of deep neural networks in object detection, they are costly to train and scale due to supervision requirements. Particularly, learning more object categories typically requires proportionally more bounding box annotations. Weakly supervised and zero-shot learning techniques have been explored to scale object detectors to more categories with less supervision, but they have not been as successful and widely adopted as supervised models. In this paper, we put forth a novel formulation of the object detection problem, namely open-vocabulary object detection, which is more general, more practical, and more effective than weakly supervised and zero-shot approaches. We propose a new method to train object detectors using bounding box annotations for a limited set of object categories, as well as image-caption pairs that cover a larger variety of objects at a significantly lower cost. We show that the proposed method can detect and localize objects for which no bounding box annotation is provided during training, at a significantly higher accuracy than zero-shot approaches. Meanwhile, objects with bounding box annotation can be detected almost as accurately as supervised methods, which is significantly better than weakly supervised baselines. Accordingly, we establish a new state of the art for scalable object detection.
Generalized Intersection over Union: A Metric and A Loss for Bounding Box Regression2019-04-14   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Intersection over Union (IoU) is the most popular evaluation metric used in the object detection benchmarks. However, there is a gap between optimizing the commonly used distance losses for regressing the parameters of a bounding box and maximizing this metric value. The optimal objective for a metric is the metric itself. In the case of axis-aligned 2D bounding boxes, it can be shown that $IoU$ can be directly used as a regression loss. However, $IoU$ has a plateau making it infeasible to optimize in the case of non-overlapping bounding boxes. In this paper, we address the weaknesses of $IoU$ by introducing a generalized version as both a new loss and a new metric. By incorporating this generalized $IoU$ ($GIoU$) as a loss into the state-of-the art object detection frameworks, we show a consistent improvement on their performance using both the standard, $IoU$ based, and new, $GIoU$ based, performance measures on popular object detection benchmarks such as PASCAL VOC and MS COCO.
Weakly Supervised Clustering by Exploiting Unique Class Count2020-01-25   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
A weakly supervised learning based clustering framework is proposed in this paper. As the core of this framework, we introduce a novel multiple instance learning task based on a bag level label called unique class count ($ucc$), which is the number of unique classes among all instances inside the bag. In this task, no annotations on individual instances inside the bag are needed during training of the models. We mathematically prove that with a perfect $ucc$ classifier, perfect clustering of individual instances inside the bags is possible even when no annotations on individual instances are given during training. We have constructed a neural network based $ucc$ classifier and experimentally shown that the clustering performance of our framework with our weakly supervised $ucc$ classifier is comparable to that of fully supervised learning models where labels for all instances are known. Furthermore, we have tested the applicability of our framework to a real world task of semantic segmentation of breast cancer metastases in histological lymph node sections and shown that the performance of our weakly supervised framework is comparable to the performance of a fully supervised Unet model.
Learning Two-View Correspondences and Geometry Using Order-Aware Network2019-08-14   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Establishing correspondences between two images requires both local and global spatial context. Given putative correspondences of feature points in two views, in this paper, we propose Order-Aware Network, which infers the probabilities of correspondences being inliers and regresses the relative pose encoded by the essential matrix. Specifically, this proposed network is built hierarchically and comprises three novel operations. First, to capture the local context of sparse correspondences, the network clusters unordered input correspondences by learning a soft assignment matrix. These clusters are in a canonical order and invariant to input permutations. Next, the clusters are spatially correlated to form the global context of correspondences. After that, the context-encoded clusters are recovered back to the original size through a proposed upsampling operator. We intensively experiment on both outdoor and indoor datasets. The accuracy of the two-view geometry and correspondences are significantly improved over the state-of-the-arts. Code will be available at https://github.com/zjhthu/OANet.git.
A Hypergradient Approach to Robust Regression without Correspondence2020-11-30   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
We consider a regression problem, where the correspondence between input and output data is not available. Such shuffled data is commonly observed in many real world problems. Taking flow cytometry as an example, the measuring instruments are unable to preserve the correspondence between the samples and the measurements. Due to the combinatorial nature, most of existing methods are only applicable when the sample size is small, and limited to linear regression models. To overcome such bottlenecks, we propose a new computational framework - ROBOT- for the shuffled regression problem, which is applicable to large data and complex models. Specifically, we propose to formulate the regression without correspondence as a continuous optimization problem. Then by exploiting the interaction between the regression model and the data correspondence, we propose to develop a hypergradient approach based on differentiable programming techniques. Such a hypergradient approach essentially views the data correspondence as an operator of the regression, and therefore allows us to find a better descent direction for the model parameter by differentiating through the data correspondence. ROBOT is quite general, and can be further extended to the inexact correspondence setting, where the input and output data are not necessarily exactly aligned. Thorough numerical experiments show that ROBOT achieves better performance than existing methods in both linear and nonlinear regression tasks, including real-world applications such as flow cytometry and multi-object tracking.
Do Convnets Learn Correspondence?2014-11-04   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Convolutional neural nets (convnets) trained from massive labeled datasets have substantially improved the state-of-the-art in image classification and object detection. However, visual understanding requires establishing correspondence on a finer level than object category. Given their large pooling regions and training from whole-image labels, it is not clear that convnets derive their success from an accurate correspondence model which could be used for precise localization. In this paper, we study the effectiveness of convnet activation features for tasks requiring correspondence. We present evidence that convnet features localize at a much finer scale than their receptive field sizes, that they can be used to perform intraclass alignment as well as conventional hand-engineered features, and that they outperform conventional features in keypoint prediction on objects from PASCAL VOC 2011.
BshapeNet: Object Detection and Instance Segmentation with Bounding Shape Masks2019-07-31   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Recent object detectors use four-coordinate bounding box (bbox) regression to predict object locations. Providing additional information indicating the object positions and coordinates will improve detection performance. Thus, we propose two types of masks: a bbox mask and a bounding shape (bshape) mask, to represent the object's bbox and boundary shape, respectively. For each of these types, we consider two variants: the Thick model and the Scored model, both of which have the same morphology but differ in ways to make their boundaries thicker. To evaluate the proposed masks, we design extended frameworks by adding a bshape mask (or a bbox mask) branch to a Faster R-CNN framework, and call this BshapeNet (or BboxNet). Further, we propose BshapeNet+, a network that combines a bshape mask branch with a Mask R-CNN to improve instance segmentation as well as detection. Among our proposed models, BshapeNet+ demonstrates the best performance in both tasks and achieves highly competitive results with state of the art (SOTA) models. Particularly, it improves the detection results over Faster R-CNN+RoIAlign (37.3% and 28.9%) with a detection AP of 42.4% and 32.3% on MS COCO test-dev and Cityscapes val, respectively. Furthermore, for small objects, it achieves 24.9% AP on COCO test-dev, a significant improvement over previous SOTA models. For instance segmentation, it is substantially superior to Mask R-CNN on both test datasets.
Weak Supervision for Generating Pixel-Level Annotations in Scene Text Segmentation2019-11-19   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Providing pixel-level supervisions for scene text segmentation is inherently difficult and costly, so that only few small datasets are available for this task. To face the scarcity of training data, previous approaches based on Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) rely on the use of a synthetic dataset for pre-training. However, synthetic data cannot reproduce the complexity and variability of natural images. In this work, we propose to use a weakly supervised learning approach to reduce the domain-shift between synthetic and real data. Leveraging the bounding-box supervision of the COCO-Text and the MLT datasets, we generate weak pixel-level supervisions of real images. In particular, the COCO-Text-Segmentation (COCO_TS) and the MLT-Segmentation (MLT_S) datasets are created and released. These two datasets are used to train a CNN, the Segmentation Multiscale Attention Network (SMANet), which is specifically designed to face some peculiarities of the scene text segmentation task. The SMANet is trained end-to-end on the proposed datasets, and the experiments show that COCO_TS and MLT_S are a valid alternative to synthetic images, allowing to use only a fraction of the training samples and improving significantly the performances.
Comprehensive Attention Self-Distillation for Weakly-Supervised Object Detection2020-10-22   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Weakly Supervised Object Detection (WSOD) has emerged as an effective tool to train object detectors using only the image-level category labels. However, without object-level labels, WSOD detectors are prone to detect bounding boxes on salient objects, clustered objects and discriminative object parts. Moreover, the image-level category labels do not enforce consistent object detection across different transformations of the same images. To address the above issues, we propose a Comprehensive Attention Self-Distillation (CASD) training approach for WSOD. To balance feature learning among all object instances, CASD computes the comprehensive attention aggregated from multiple transformations and feature layers of the same images. To enforce consistent spatial supervision on objects, CASD conducts self-distillation on the WSOD networks, such that the comprehensive attention is approximated simultaneously by multiple transformations and feature layers of the same images. CASD produces new state-of-the-art WSOD results on standard benchmarks such as PASCAL VOC 2007/2012 and MS-COCO.
Cascade Attentive Dropout for Weakly Supervised Object Detection2020-11-20   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Weakly supervised object detection (WSOD) aims to classify and locate objects with only image-level supervision. Many WSOD approaches adopt multiple instance learning as the initial model, which is prone to converge to the most discriminative object regions while ignoring the whole object, and therefore reduce the model detection performance. In this paper, a novel cascade attentive dropout strategy is proposed to alleviate the part domination problem, together with an improved global context module. We purposely discard attentive elements in both channel and space dimensions, and capture the inter-pixel and inter-channel dependencies to induce the model to better understand the global context. Extensive experiments have been conducted on the challenging PASCAL VOC 2007 benchmarks, which achieve 49.8% mAP and 66.0% CorLoc, outperforming state-of-the-arts.
Learning Cross-Domain Correspondence for Control with Dynamics Cycle-Consistency2020-12-17   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
At the heart of many robotics problems is the challenge of learning correspondences across domains. For instance, imitation learning requires obtaining correspondence between humans and robots; sim-to-real requires correspondence between physics simulators and the real world; transfer learning requires correspondences between different robotics environments. This paper aims to learn correspondence across domains differing in representation (vision vs. internal state), physics parameters (mass and friction), and morphology (number of limbs). Importantly, correspondences are learned using unpaired and randomly collected data from the two domains. We propose \textit{dynamics cycles} that align dynamic robot behavior across two domains using a cycle-consistency constraint. Once this correspondence is found, we can directly transfer the policy trained on one domain to the other, without needing any additional fine-tuning on the second domain. We perform experiments across a variety of problem domains, both in simulation and on real robot. Our framework is able to align uncalibrated monocular video of a real robot arm to dynamic state-action trajectories of a simulated arm without paired data. Video demonstrations of our results are available at: https://sjtuzq.github.io/cycle_dynamics.html .