News Blog Paper China
OpenFL: An open-source framework for Federated Learning2021-05-13   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Federated learning (FL) is a computational paradigm that enables organizations to collaborate on machine learning (ML) projects without sharing sensitive data, such as, patient records, financial data, or classified secrets. Open Federated Learning (OpenFL https://github.com/intel/openfl) is an open-source framework for training ML algorithms using the data-private collaborative learning paradigm of FL. OpenFL works with training pipelines built with both TensorFlow and PyTorch, and can be easily extended to other ML and deep learning frameworks. Here, we summarize the motivation and development characteristics of OpenFL, with the intention of facilitating its application to existing ML model training in a production environment. Finally, we describe the first use of the OpenFL framework to train consensus ML models in a consortium of international healthcare organizations, as well as how it facilitates the first computational competition on FL.
IPLS : A Framework for Decentralized Federated Learning2021-01-06   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
The proliferation of resourceful mobile devices that store rich, multidimensional and privacy-sensitive user data motivate the design of federated learning (FL), a machine-learning (ML) paradigm that enables mobile devices to produce an ML model without sharing their data. However, the majority of the existing FL frameworks rely on centralized entities. In this work, we introduce IPLS, a fully decentralized federated learning framework that is partially based on the interplanetary file system (IPFS). By using IPLS and connecting into the corresponding private IPFS network, any party can initiate the training process of an ML model or join an ongoing training process that has already been started by another party. IPLS scales with the number of participants, is robust against intermittent connectivity and dynamic participant departures/arrivals, requires minimal resources, and guarantees that the accuracy of the trained model quickly converges to that of a centralized FL framework with an accuracy drop of less than one per thousand.
Federated Learning: Opportunities and Challenges2021-01-13   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Federated Learning (FL) is a concept first introduced by Google in 2016, in which multiple devices collaboratively learn a machine learning model without sharing their private data under the supervision of a central server. This offers ample opportunities in critical domains such as healthcare, finance etc, where it is risky to share private user information to other organisations or devices. While FL appears to be a promising Machine Learning (ML) technique to keep the local data private, it is also vulnerable to attacks like other ML models. Given the growing interest in the FL domain, this report discusses the opportunities and challenges in federated learning.
Private Federated Learning with Domain Adaptation2019-12-13   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Federated Learning (FL) is a distributed machine learning (ML) paradigm that enables multiple parties to jointly re-train a shared model without sharing their data with any other parties, offering advantages in both scale and privacy. We propose a framework to augment this collaborative model-building with per-user domain adaptation. We show that this technique improves model accuracy for all users, using both real and synthetic data, and that this improvement is much more pronounced when differential privacy bounds are imposed on the FL model.
Industrial Federated Learning -- Requirements and System Design2020-05-14   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Federated Learning (FL) is a very promising approach for improving decentralized Machine Learning (ML) models by exchanging knowledge between participating clients without revealing private data. Nevertheless, FL is still not tailored to the industrial context as strong data similarity is assumed for all FL tasks. This is rarely the case in industrial machine data with variations in machine type, operational- and environmental conditions. Therefore, we introduce an Industrial Federated Learning (IFL) system supporting knowledge exchange in continuously evaluated and updated FL cohorts of learning tasks with sufficient data similarity. This enables optimal collaboration of business partners in common ML problems, prevents negative knowledge transfer, and ensures resource optimization of involved edge devices.
Mitigating Bias in Federated Learning2020-12-04   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
As methods to create discrimination-aware models develop, they focus on centralized ML, leaving federated learning (FL) unexplored. FL is a rising approach for collaborative ML, in which an aggregator orchestrates multiple parties to train a global model without sharing their training data. In this paper, we discuss causes of bias in FL and propose three pre-processing and in-processing methods to mitigate bias, without compromising data privacy, a key FL requirement. As data heterogeneity among parties is one of the challenging characteristics of FL, we conduct experiments over several data distributions to analyze their effects on model performance, fairness metrics, and bias learning patterns. We conduct a comprehensive analysis of our proposed techniques, the results demonstrating that these methods are effective even when parties have skewed data distributions or as little as 20% of parties employ the methods.
Federated Learning for Vehicular Networks2020-06-02   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Machine learning (ML) has already been adopted in vehicular networks for such applications as autonomous driving, road safety prediction and vehicular object detection, due to its model-free characteristic, allowing adaptive fast response. However, the training of the ML model brings significant complexity for the data transmission between the learning model in a cloud server and the edge devices in the vehicles. Federated learning (FL) framework has been recently introduced as an efficient tool with the goal of reducing this transmission overhead while also achieving privacy through the transmission of only the gradients of the learnable parameters rather than the whole dataset. In this article, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the usage of FL over ML in vehicular network applications to develop intelligent transportation systems. Based on the real image and lidar data collected from the vehicles, we illustrate the superior performance of FL over ML in terms of data transmission complexity for vehicular object detection application. Finally, we highlight major research issues and identify future research directions on system heterogeneity, data heterogeneity, efficient model training and reducing transmission complexity in FL based vehicular networks.
The FeatureCloud AI Store for Federated Learning in Biomedicine and Beyond2021-05-12   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Machine Learning (ML) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) have shown promising results in many areas and are driven by the increasing amount of available data. However, this data is often distributed across different institutions and cannot be shared due to privacy concerns. Privacy-preserving methods, such as Federated Learning (FL), allow for training ML models without sharing sensitive data, but their implementation is time-consuming and requires advanced programming skills. Here, we present the FeatureCloud AI Store for FL as an all-in-one platform for biomedical research and other applications. It removes large parts of this complexity for developers and end-users by providing an extensible AI Store with a collection of ready-to-use apps. We show that the federated apps produce similar results to centralized ML, scale well for a typical number of collaborators and can be combined with Secure Multiparty Computation (SMPC), thereby making FL algorithms safely and easily applicable in biomedical and clinical environments.
Evaluating the Communication Efficiency in Federated Learning Algorithms2020-04-06   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
In the era of advanced technologies, mobile devices are equipped with computing and sensing capabilities that gather excessive amounts of data. These amounts of data are suitable for training different learning models. Cooperated with advancements in Deep Learning (DL), these learning models empower numerous useful applications, e.g., image processing, speech recognition, healthcare, vehicular network and many more. Traditionally, Machine Learning (ML) approaches require data to be centralised in cloud-based data-centres. However, this data is often large in quantity and privacy-sensitive which prevents logging into these data-centres for training the learning models. In turn, this results in critical issues of high latency and communication inefficiency. Recently, in light of new privacy legislations in many countries, the concept of Federated Learning (FL) has been introduced. In FL, mobile users are empowered to learn a global model by aggregating their local models, without sharing the privacy-sensitive data. Usually, these mobile users have slow network connections to the data-centre where the global model is maintained. Moreover, in a complex and large scale network, heterogeneous devices that have various energy constraints are involved. This raises the challenge of communication cost when implementing FL at large scale. To this end, in this research, we begin with the fundamentals of FL, and then, we highlight the recent FL algorithms and evaluate their communication efficiency with detailed comparisons. Furthermore, we propose a set of solutions to alleviate the existing FL problems both from communication perspective and privacy perspective.
Salvaging Federated Learning by Local Adaptation2020-02-11   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Federated learning (FL) is a heavily promoted approach for training ML models on sensitive data, e.g., text typed by users on their smartphones. FL is expressly designed for training on data that are unbalanced and non-iid across the participants. To ensure privacy and integrity of the federated model, latest FL approaches use differential privacy or robust aggregation to limit the influence of "outlier" participants. First, we show that on standard tasks such as next-word prediction, many participants gain no benefit from FL because the federated model is less accurate on their data than the models they can train locally on their own. Second, we show that differential privacy and robust aggregation make this problem worse by further destroying the accuracy of the federated model for many participants. Then, we evaluate three techniques for local adaptation of federated models: fine-tuning, multi-task learning, and knowledge distillation. We analyze where each technique is applicable and demonstrate that all participants benefit from local adaptation. Participants whose local models are poor obtain big accuracy improvements over conventional FL. Participants whose local models are better than the federated model and who have no incentive to participate in FL today improve less, but sufficiently to make the adapted federated model better than their local models.
On-device Federated Learning with Flower2021-04-07   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Federated Learning (FL) allows edge devices to collaboratively learn a shared prediction model while keeping their training data on the device, thereby decoupling the ability to do machine learning from the need to store data in the cloud. Despite the algorithmic advancements in FL, the support for on-device training of FL algorithms on edge devices remains poor. In this paper, we present an exploration of on-device FL on various smartphones and embedded devices using the Flower framework. We also evaluate the system costs of on-device FL and discuss how this quantification could be used to design more efficient FL algorithms.
Failure Prediction in Production Line Based on Federated Learning: An Empirical Study2021-01-25   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Data protection across organizations is limiting the application of centralized learning (CL) techniques. Federated learning (FL) enables multiple participants to build a learning model without sharing data. Nevertheless, there are very few research works on FL in intelligent manufacturing. This paper presents the results of an empirical study on failure prediction in the production line based on FL. This paper (1) designs Federated Support Vector Machine (FedSVM) and Federated Random Forest (FedRF) algorithms for the horizontal FL and vertical FL scenarios, respectively; (2) proposes an experiment process for evaluating the effectiveness between the FL and CL algorithms; (3) finds that the performance of FL and CL are not significantly different on the global testing data, on the random partial testing data, and on the estimated unknown Bosch data, respectively. The fact that the testing data is heterogeneous enhances our findings. Our study reveals that FL can replace CL for failure prediction.
A Survey on Federated Learning and its Applications for Accelerating Industrial Internet of Things2021-04-21   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Federated learning (FL) brings collaborative intelligence into industries without centralized training data to accelerate the process of Industry 4.0 on the edge computing level. FL solves the dilemma in which enterprises wish to make the use of data intelligence with security concerns. To accelerate industrial Internet of things with the further leverage of FL, existing achievements on FL are developed from three aspects: 1) define terminologies and elaborate a general framework of FL for accommodating various scenarios; 2) discuss the state-of-the-art of FL on fundamental researches including data partitioning, privacy preservation, model optimization, local model transportation, personalization, motivation mechanism, platform & tools, and benchmark; 3) discuss the impacts of FL from the economic perspective. To attract more attention from industrial academia and practice, a FL-transformed manufacturing paradigm is presented, and future research directions of FL are given and possible immediate applications in Industry 4.0 domain are also proposed.
LINDT: Tackling Negative Federated Learning with Local Adaptation2020-11-22   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Federated Learning (FL) is a promising distributed learning paradigm, which allows a number of data owners (also called clients) to collaboratively learn a shared model without disclosing each client's data. However, FL may fail to proceed properly, amid a state that we call negative federated learning (NFL). This paper addresses the problem of negative federated learning. We formulate a rigorous definition of NFL and analyze its essential cause. We propose a novel framework called LINDT for tackling NFL in run-time. The framework can potentially work with any neural-network-based FL systems for NFL detection and recovery. Specifically, we introduce a metric for detecting NFL from the server. On occasion of NFL recovery, the framework makes adaptation to the federated model on each client's local data by learning a Layer-wise Intertwined Dual-model. Experiment results show that the proposed approach can significantly improve the performance of FL on local data in various scenarios of NFL.
Federated Learning for Resource-Constrained IoT Devices: Panoramas and State-of-the-art2020-02-24   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Nowadays, devices are equipped with advanced sensors with higher processing/computing capabilities. Further, widespread Internet availability enables communication among sensing devices. As a result, vast amounts of data are generated on edge devices to drive Internet-of-Things (IoT), crowdsourcing, and other emerging technologies. The collected extensive data can be pre-processed, scaled, classified, and finally, used for predicting future events using machine learning (ML) methods. In traditional ML approaches, data is sent to and processed in a central server, which encounters communication overhead, processing delay, privacy leakage, and security issues. To overcome these challenges, each client can be trained locally based on its available data and by learning from the global model. This decentralized learning structure is referred to as Federated Learning (FL). However, in large-scale networks, there may be clients with varying computational resource capabilities. This may lead to implementation and scalability challenges for FL techniques. In this paper, we first introduce some recently implemented real-life applications of FL. We then emphasize on the core challenges of implementing the FL algorithms from the perspective of resource limitations (e.g., memory, bandwidth, and energy budget) of client clients. We finally discuss open issues associated with FL and highlight future directions in the FL area concerning resource-constrained devices.
Flower: A Friendly Federated Learning Research Framework2020-07-28   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Federated Learning (FL) has emerged as a promising technique for edge devices to collaboratively learn a shared prediction model, while keeping their training data on the device, thereby decoupling the ability to do machine learning from the need to store the data in the cloud. However, FL is difficult to implement and deploy in practice, considering the heterogeneity in mobile devices, e.g., different programming languages, frameworks, and hardware accelerators. Although there are a few frameworks available to simulate FL algorithms (e.g., TensorFlow Federated), they do not support implementing FL workloads on mobile devices. Furthermore, these frameworks are designed to simulate FL in a server environment and hence do not allow experimentation in distributed mobile settings for a large number of clients. In this paper, we present Flower (https://flower.dev/), a FL framework which is both agnostic towards heterogeneous client environments and also scales to a large number of clients, including mobile and embedded devices. Flower's abstractions let developers port existing mobile workloads with little overhead, regardless of the programming language or ML framework used, while also allowing researchers flexibility to experiment with novel approaches to advance the state-of-the-art. We describe the design goals and implementation considerations of Flower and show our experiences in evaluating the performance of FL across clients with heterogeneous computational and communication capabilities.
A Systematic Literature Review on Federated Learning: From A Model Quality Perspective2020-12-01   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
As an emerging technique, Federated Learning (FL) can jointly train a global model with the data remaining locally, which effectively solves the problem of data privacy protection through the encryption mechanism. The clients train their local model, and the server aggregates models until convergence. In this process, the server uses an incentive mechanism to encourage clients to contribute high-quality and large-volume data to improve the global model. Although some works have applied FL to the Internet of Things (IoT), medicine, manufacturing, etc., the application of FL is still in its infancy, and many related issues need to be solved. Improving the quality of FL models is one of the current research hotspots and challenging tasks. This paper systematically reviews and objectively analyzes the approaches to improving the quality of FL models. We are also interested in the research and application trends of FL and the effect comparison between FL and non-FL because the practitioners usually worry that achieving privacy protection needs compromising learning quality. We use a systematic review method to analyze 147 latest articles related to FL. This review provides useful information and insights to both academia and practitioners from the industry. We investigate research questions about academic research and industrial application trends of FL, essential factors affecting the quality of FL models, and compare FL and non-FL algorithms in terms of learning quality. Based on our review's conclusion, we give some suggestions for improving the FL model quality. Finally, we propose an FL application framework for practitioners.
A Joint Learning and Communications Framework for Federated Learning over Wireless Networks2020-06-08   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
In this paper, the problem of training federated learning (FL) algorithms over a realistic wireless network is studied. In particular, in the considered model, wireless users execute an FL algorithm while training their local FL models using their own data and transmitting the trained local FL models to a base station (BS) that will generate a global FL model and send it back to the users. Since all training parameters are transmitted over wireless links, the quality of the training will be affected by wireless factors such as packet errors and the availability of wireless resources. Meanwhile, due to the limited wireless bandwidth, the BS must select an appropriate subset of users to execute the FL algorithm so as to build a global FL model accurately. This joint learning, wireless resource allocation, and user selection problem is formulated as an optimization problem whose goal is to minimize an FL loss function that captures the performance of the FL algorithm. To address this problem, a closed-form expression for the expected convergence rate of the FL algorithm is first derived to quantify the impact of wireless factors on FL. Then, based on the expected convergence rate of the FL algorithm, the optimal transmit power for each user is derived, under a given user selection and uplink resource block (RB) allocation scheme. Finally, the user selection and uplink RB allocation is optimized so as to minimize the FL loss function. Simulation results show that the proposed joint federated learning and communication framework can reduce the FL loss function value by up to 10% and 16%, respectively, compared to: 1) An optimal user selection algorithm with random resource allocation and 2) a standard FL algorithm with random user selection and resource allocation.
Privacy-Preserving Self-Taught Federated Learning for Heterogeneous Data2021-02-11   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Many application scenarios call for training a machine learning model among multiple participants. Federated learning (FL) was proposed to enable joint training of a deep learning model using the local data in each party without revealing the data to others. Among various types of FL methods, vertical FL is a category to handle data sources with the same ID space and different feature spaces. However, existing vertical FL methods suffer from limitations such as restrictive neural network structure, slow training speed, and often lack the ability to take advantage of data with unmatched IDs. In this work, we propose an FL method called self-taught federated learning to address the aforementioned issues, which uses unsupervised feature extraction techniques for distributed supervised deep learning tasks. In this method, only latent variables are transmitted to other parties for model training, while privacy is preserved by storing the data and parameters of activations, weights, and biases locally. Extensive experiments are performed to evaluate and demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the proposed method.
Advances and Open Problems in Federated Learning2019-12-10   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Federated learning (FL) is a machine learning setting where many clients (e.g. mobile devices or whole organizations) collaboratively train a model under the orchestration of a central server (e.g. service provider), while keeping the training data decentralized. FL embodies the principles of focused data collection and minimization, and can mitigate many of the systemic privacy risks and costs resulting from traditional, centralized machine learning and data science approaches. Motivated by the explosive growth in FL research, this paper discusses recent advances and presents an extensive collection of open problems and challenges.