10,16,2021

 Compositional Generalization in Image Captioning2019-09-16   ${\displaystyle \cong }$ Image captioning models are usually evaluated on their ability to describe a held-out set of images, not on their ability to generalize to unseen concepts. We study the problem of compositional generalization, which measures how well a model composes unseen combinations of concepts when describing images. State-of-the-art image captioning models show poor generalization performance on this task. We propose a multi-task model to address the poor performance, that combines caption generation and image--sentence ranking, and uses a decoding mechanism that re-ranks the captions according their similarity to the image. This model is substantially better at generalizing to unseen combinations of concepts compared to state-of-the-art captioning models. nocaps: novel object captioning at scale2019-09-30   ${\displaystyle \cong }$ Image captioning models have achieved impressive results on datasets containing limited visual concepts and large amounts of paired image-caption training data. However, if these models are to ever function in the wild, a much larger variety of visual concepts must be learned, ideally from less supervision. To encourage the development of image captioning models that can learn visual concepts from alternative data sources, such as object detection datasets, we present the first large-scale benchmark for this task. Dubbed 'nocaps', for novel object captioning at scale, our benchmark consists of 166,100 human-generated captions describing 15,100 images from the OpenImages validation and test sets. The associated training data consists of COCO image-caption pairs, plus OpenImages image-level labels and object bounding boxes. Since OpenImages contains many more classes than COCO, nearly 400 object classes seen in test images have no or very few associated training captions (hence, nocaps). We extend existing novel object captioning models to establish strong baselines for this benchmark and provide analysis to guide future work on this task. Egoshots, an ego-vision life-logging dataset and semantic fidelity metric to evaluate diversity in image captioning models2020-03-27   ${\displaystyle \cong }$ Image captioning models have been able to generate grammatically correct and human understandable sentences. However most of the captions convey limited information as the model used is trained on datasets that do not caption all possible objects existing in everyday life. Due to this lack of prior information most of the captions are biased to only a few objects present in the scene, hence limiting their usage in daily life. In this paper, we attempt to show the biased nature of the currently existing image captioning models and present a new image captioning dataset, Egoshots, consisting of 978 real life images with no captions. We further exploit the state of the art pre-trained image captioning and object recognition networks to annotate our images and show the limitations of existing works. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the quality of the generated captions, we propose a new image captioning metric, object based Semantic Fidelity (SF). Existing image captioning metrics can evaluate a caption only in the presence of their corresponding annotations; however, SF allows evaluating captions generated for images without annotations, making it highly useful for real life generated captions. A Comprehensive Survey of Deep Learning for Image Captioning2018-10-14   ${\displaystyle \cong }$ Generating a description of an image is called image captioning. Image captioning requires to recognize the important objects, their attributes and their relationships in an image. It also needs to generate syntactically and semantically correct sentences. Deep learning-based techniques are capable of handling the complexities and challenges of image captioning. In this survey paper, we aim to present a comprehensive review of existing deep learning-based image captioning techniques. We discuss the foundation of the techniques to analyze their performances, strengths and limitations. We also discuss the datasets and the evaluation metrics popularly used in deep learning based automatic image captioning. Length-Controllable Image Captioning2020-07-18   ${\displaystyle \cong }$ The last decade has witnessed remarkable progress in the image captioning task; however, most existing methods cannot control their captions, \emph{e.g.}, choosing to describe the image either roughly or in detail. In this paper, we propose to use a simple length level embedding to endow them with this ability. Moreover, due to their autoregressive nature, the computational complexity of existing models increases linearly as the length of the generated captions grows. Thus, we further devise a non-autoregressive image captioning approach that can generate captions in a length-irrelevant complexity. We verify the merit of the proposed length level embedding on three models: two state-of-the-art (SOTA) autoregressive models with different types of decoder, as well as our proposed non-autoregressive model, to show its generalization ability. In the experiments, our length-controllable image captioning models not only achieve SOTA performance on the challenging MS COCO dataset but also generate length-controllable and diverse image captions. Specifically, our non-autoregressive model outperforms the autoregressive baselines in terms of controllability and diversity, and also significantly improves the decoding efficiency for long captions. Our code and models are released at \textcolor{magenta}{\texttt{https://github.com/bearcatt/LaBERT}}. Diverse and Styled Image Captioning Using SVD-Based Mixture of Recurrent Experts2020-07-07   ${\displaystyle \cong }$ With great advances in vision and natural language processing, the generation of image captions becomes a need. In a recent paper, Mathews, Xie and He [1], extended a new model to generate styled captions by separating semantics and style. In continuation of this work, here a new captioning model is developed including an image encoder to extract the features, a mixture of recurrent networks to embed the set of extracted features to a set of words, and a sentence generator that combines the obtained words as a stylized sentence. The resulted system that entitled as Mixture of Recurrent Experts (MoRE), uses a new training algorithm that derives singular value decomposition (SVD) from weighting matrices of Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) to increase the diversity of captions. Each decomposition step depends on a distinctive factor based on the number of RNNs in MoRE. Since the used sentence generator gives a stylized language corpus without paired images, our captioning model can do the same. Besides, the styled and diverse captions are extracted without training on a densely labeled or styled dataset. To validate this captioning model, we use Microsoft COCO which is a standard factual image caption dataset. We show that the proposed captioning model can generate a diverse and stylized image captions without the necessity of extra-labeling. The results also show better descriptions in terms of content accuracy. Image Captioning based on Deep Reinforcement Learning2018-09-13   ${\displaystyle \cong }$ Recently it has shown that the policy-gradient methods for reinforcement learning have been utilized to train deep end-to-end systems on natural language processing tasks. What's more, with the complexity of understanding image content and diverse ways of describing image content in natural language, image captioning has been a challenging problem to deal with. To the best of our knowledge, most state-of-the-art methods follow a pattern of sequential model, such as recurrent neural networks (RNN). However, in this paper, we propose a novel architecture for image captioning with deep reinforcement learning to optimize image captioning tasks. We utilize two networks called "policy network" and "value network" to collaboratively generate the captions of images. The experiments are conducted on Microsoft COCO dataset, and the experimental results have verified the effectiveness of the proposed method. B-SCST: Bayesian Self-Critical Sequence Training for Image Captioning2020-06-28   ${\displaystyle \cong }$ Bayesian deep neural networks (DNNs) can provide a mathematically grounded framework to quantify uncertainty in predictions from image captioning models. We propose a Bayesian variant of policy-gradient based reinforcement learning training technique for image captioning models to directly optimize non-differentiable image captioning quality metrics such as CIDEr-D. We extend the well-known Self-Critical Sequence Training (SCST) approach for image captioning models by incorporating Bayesian inference, and refer to it as B-SCST. The "baseline" for the policy-gradients in B-SCST is generated by averaging predictive quality metrics (CIDEr-D) of the captions drawn from the distribution obtained using a Bayesian DNN model. We infer this predictive distribution using Monte Carlo (MC) dropout approximate variational inference. We show that B-SCST improves CIDEr-D scores on Flickr30k, MS COCO and VizWiz image captioning datasets, compared to the SCST approach. We also provide a study of uncertainty quantification for the predicted captions, and demonstrate that it correlates well with the CIDEr-D scores. To our knowledge, this is the first such analysis, and it can improve the interpretability of image captioning model outputs, which is critical for practical applications. Compare and Reweight: Distinctive Image Captioning Using Similar Images Sets2020-07-14   ${\displaystyle \cong }$ A wide range of image captioning models has been developed, achieving significant improvement based on popular metrics, such as BLEU, CIDEr, and SPICE. However, although the generated captions can accurately describe the image, they are generic for similar images and lack distinctiveness, i.e., cannot properly describe the uniqueness of each image. In this paper, we aim to improve the distinctiveness of image captions through training with sets of similar images. First, we propose a distinctiveness metric -- between-set CIDEr (CIDErBtw) to evaluate the distinctiveness of a caption with respect to those of similar images. Our metric shows that the human annotations of each image are not equivalent based on distinctiveness. Thus we propose several new training strategies to encourage the distinctiveness of the generated caption for each image, which are based on using CIDErBtw in a weighted loss function or as a reinforcement learning reward. Finally, extensive experiments are conducted, showing that our proposed approach significantly improves both distinctiveness (as measured by CIDErBtw and retrieval metrics) and accuracy (e.g., as measured by CIDEr) for a wide variety of image captioning baselines. These results are further confirmed through a user study. Learning like a Child: Fast Novel Visual Concept Learning from Sentence Descriptions of Images2015-10-01   ${\displaystyle \cong }$ In this paper, we address the task of learning novel visual concepts, and their interactions with other concepts, from a few images with sentence descriptions. Using linguistic context and visual features, our method is able to efficiently hypothesize the semantic meaning of new words and add them to its word dictionary so that they can be used to describe images which contain these novel concepts. Our method has an image captioning module based on m-RNN with several improvements. In particular, we propose a transposed weight sharing scheme, which not only improves performance on image captioning, but also makes the model more suitable for the novel concept learning task. We propose methods to prevent overfitting the new concepts. In addition, three novel concept datasets are constructed for this new task. In the experiments, we show that our method effectively learns novel visual concepts from a few examples without disturbing the previously learned concepts. The project page is http://www.stat.ucla.edu/~junhua.mao/projects/child_learning.html An Efficient Technique for Image Captioning using Deep Neural Network2020-09-05   ${\displaystyle \cong }$ With the huge expansion of internet and trillions of gigabytes of data generated every single day, the needs for the development of various tools has become mandatory in order to maintain system adaptability to rapid changes. One of these tools is known as Image Captioning. Every entity in internet must be properly identified and managed and therefore in the case of image data, automatic captioning for identification is required. Similarly, content generation for missing labels, image classification and artificial languages all requires the process of Image Captioning. This paper discusses an efficient and unique way to perform automatic image captioning on individual image and discusses strategies to improve its performances and functionalities. SD-RSIC: Summarization Driven Deep Remote Sensing Image Captioning2020-06-15   ${\displaystyle \cong }$ Deep neural networks (DNNs) have been recently found popular for image captioning problems in remote sensing (RS). Existing DNN based approaches rely on the availability of a training set made up of a high number of RS images with their captions. However, captions of training images may contain redundant information (they can be repetitive or semantically similar to each other), resulting in information deficiency while learning a mapping from image domain to language domain. To overcome this limitation, in this paper we present a novel Summarization Driven Remote Sensing Image Captioning (SD-RSIC) approach. The proposed approach consists of three main steps. The first step obtains the standard image captions by jointly exploiting convolutional neural networks (CNNs) with long short-term memory (LSTM) networks. The second step, unlike the existing RS image captioning methods, summarizes the ground-truth captions of each training image into a single caption by exploiting sequence to sequence neural networks and eliminates the redundancy present in the training set. The third step automatically defines the adaptive weights associated to each RS image to combine the standard captions with the summarized captions based on the semantic content of the image. This is achieved by a novel adaptive weighting strategy defined in the context of LSTM networks. Experimental results obtained on the RSCID, UCM-Captions and Sydney-Captions datasets show the effectiveness of the proposed approach compared to the state-of-the-art RS image captioning approaches. Text-to-Image-to-Text Translation using Cycle Consistent Adversarial Networks2018-08-14   ${\displaystyle \cong }$ Text-to-Image translation has been an active area of research in the recent past. The ability for a network to learn the meaning of a sentence and generate an accurate image that depicts the sentence shows ability of the model to think more like humans. Popular methods on text to image translation make use of Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) to generate high quality images based on text input, but the generated images don't always reflect the meaning of the sentence given to the model as input. We address this issue by using a captioning network to caption on generated images and exploit the distance between ground truth captions and generated captions to improve the network further. We show extensive comparisons between our method and existing methods. Semantic Object Accuracy for Generative Text-to-Image Synthesis2020-06-02   ${\displaystyle \cong }$ Generative adversarial networks conditioned on textual image descriptions are capable of generating realistic-looking images. However, current methods still struggle to generate images based on complex image captions from a heterogeneous domain. Furthermore, quantitatively evaluating these text-to-image models is challenging, as most evaluation metrics only judge image quality but not the conformity between the image and its caption. To address these challenges we introduce a new model that explicitly models individual objects within an image and a new evaluation metric called Semantic Object Accuracy (SOA) that specifically evaluates images given an image caption. The SOA uses a pre-trained object detector to evaluate if a generated image contains objects that are mentioned in the image caption, e.g. whether an image generated from "a car driving down the street" contains a car. We perform a user study comparing several text-to-image models and show that our SOA metric ranks the models the same way as humans, whereas other metrics such as the Inception Score do not. Our evaluation also shows that models which explicitly model objects outperform models which only model global image characteristics. Improving Image Captioning with Conditional Generative Adversarial Nets2019-02-12   ${\displaystyle \cong }$ In this paper, we propose a novel conditional-generative-adversarial-nets-based image captioning framework as an extension of traditional reinforcement-learning (RL)-based encoder-decoder architecture. To deal with the inconsistent evaluation problem among different objective language metrics, we are motivated to design some "discriminator" networks to automatically and progressively determine whether generated caption is human described or machine generated. Two kinds of discriminator architectures (CNN and RNN-based structures) are introduced since each has its own advantages. The proposed algorithm is generic so that it can enhance any existing RL-based image captioning framework and we show that the conventional RL training method is just a special case of our approach. Empirically, we show consistent improvements over all language evaluation metrics for different state-of-the-art image captioning models. In addition, the well-trained discriminators can also be viewed as objective image captioning evaluators A Neural Compositional Paradigm for Image Captioning2018-10-22   ${\displaystyle \cong }$ Mainstream captioning models often follow a sequential structure to generate captions, leading to issues such as introduction of irrelevant semantics, lack of diversity in the generated captions, and inadequate generalization performance. In this paper, we present an alternative paradigm for image captioning, which factorizes the captioning procedure into two stages: (1) extracting an explicit semantic representation from the given image; and (2) constructing the caption based on a recursive compositional procedure in a bottom-up manner. Compared to conventional ones, our paradigm better preserves the semantic content through an explicit factorization of semantics and syntax. By using the compositional generation procedure, caption construction follows a recursive structure, which naturally fits the properties of human language. Moreover, the proposed compositional procedure requires less data to train, generalizes better, and yields more diverse captions. Generating Diverse and Meaningful Captions2018-12-19   ${\displaystyle \cong }$ Image Captioning is a task that requires models to acquire a multi-modal understanding of the world and to express this understanding in natural language text. While the state-of-the-art for this task has rapidly improved in terms of n-gram metrics, these models tend to output the same generic captions for similar images. In this work, we address this limitation and train a model that generates more diverse and specific captions through an unsupervised training approach that incorporates a learning signal from an Image Retrieval model. We summarize previous results and improve the state-of-the-art on caption diversity and novelty. We make our source code publicly available online. What is not where: the challenge of integrating spatial representations into deep learning architectures2018-07-21   ${\displaystyle \cong }$ This paper examines to what degree current deep learning architectures for image caption generation capture spatial language. On the basis of the evaluation of examples of generated captions from the literature we argue that systems capture what objects are in the image data but not where these objects are located: the captions generated by these systems are the output of a language model conditioned on the output of an object detector that cannot capture fine-grained location information. Although language models provide useful knowledge for image captions, we argue that deep learning image captioning architectures should also model geometric relations between objects. Integrating Image Captioning with Rule-based Entity Masking2020-07-22   ${\displaystyle \cong }$ Given an image, generating its natural language description (i.e., caption) is a well studied problem. Approaches proposed to address this problem usually rely on image features that are difficult to interpret. Particularly, these image features are subdivided into global and local features, where global features are extracted from the global representation of the image, while local features are extracted from the objects detected locally in an image. Although, local features extract rich visual information from the image, existing models generate captions in a blackbox manner and humans have difficulty interpreting which local objects the caption is aimed to represent. Hence in this paper, we propose a novel framework for the image captioning with an explicit object (e.g., knowledge graph entity) selection process while still maintaining its end-to-end training ability. The model first explicitly selects which local entities to include in the caption according to a human-interpretable mask, then generate proper captions by attending to selected entities. Experiments conducted on the MSCOCO dataset demonstrate that our method achieves good performance in terms of the caption quality and diversity with a more interpretable generating process than previous counterparts. Fusion Models for Improved Visual Captioning2020-10-28   ${\displaystyle \cong }$ Visual captioning aims to generate textual descriptions given images. Traditionally, the captioning models are trained on human annotated datasets such as Flickr30k and MS-COCO, which are limited in size and diversity. This limitation hinders the generalization capabilities of these models while also rendering them to often make mistakes. Language models can, however, be trained on vast amounts of freely available unlabelled data and have recently emerged as successful language encoders and coherent text generators. Meanwhile, several unimodal and multimodal fusion techniques have been proven to work well for natural language generation and automatic speech recognition. Building on these recent developments, and with an aim of improving the quality of generated captions, the contribution of our work in this paper is two-fold: First, we propose a generic multimodal model fusion framework for caption generation as well as emendation where we utilize different fusion strategies to integrate a pretrained Auxiliary Language Model (AuxLM) within the traditional encoder-decoder visual captioning frameworks. Next, we employ the same fusion strategies to integrate a pretrained Masked Language Model (MLM), namely BERT, with a visual captioning model, viz. Show, Attend, and Tell, for emending both syntactic and semantic errors in captions. Our caption emendation experiments on three benchmark image captioning datasets, viz. Flickr8k, Flickr30k, and MSCOCO, show improvements over the baseline, indicating the usefulness of our proposed multimodal fusion strategies. Further, we perform a preliminary qualitative analysis on the emended captions and identify error categories based on the type of corrections.