News Blog Paper China
VoiceLoop: Voice Fitting and Synthesis via a Phonological Loop2018-02-01   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
We present a new neural text to speech (TTS) method that is able to transform text to speech in voices that are sampled in the wild. Unlike other systems, our solution is able to deal with unconstrained voice samples and without requiring aligned phonemes or linguistic features. The network architecture is simpler than those in the existing literature and is based on a novel shifting buffer working memory. The same buffer is used for estimating the attention, computing the output audio, and for updating the buffer itself. The input sentence is encoded using a context-free lookup table that contains one entry per character or phoneme. The speakers are similarly represented by a short vector that can also be fitted to new identities, even with only a few samples. Variability in the generated speech is achieved by priming the buffer prior to generating the audio. Experimental results on several datasets demonstrate convincing capabilities, making TTS accessible to a wider range of applications. In order to promote reproducibility, we release our source code and models.
Deep Voice 3: Scaling Text-to-Speech with Convolutional Sequence Learning2018-02-22   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
We present Deep Voice 3, a fully-convolutional attention-based neural text-to-speech (TTS) system. Deep Voice 3 matches state-of-the-art neural speech synthesis systems in naturalness while training ten times faster. We scale Deep Voice 3 to data set sizes unprecedented for TTS, training on more than eight hundred hours of audio from over two thousand speakers. In addition, we identify common error modes of attention-based speech synthesis networks, demonstrate how to mitigate them, and compare several different waveform synthesis methods. We also describe how to scale inference to ten million queries per day on one single-GPU server.
TTS Skins: Speaker Conversion via ASR2020-07-26   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
We present a fully convolutional wav-to-wav network for converting between speakers' voices, without relying on text. Our network is based on an encoder-decoder architecture, where the encoder is pre-trained for the task of Automatic Speech Recognition, and a multi-speaker waveform decoder is trained to reconstruct the original signal in an autoregressive manner. We train the network on narrated audiobooks, and demonstrate multi-voice TTS in those voices, by converting the voice of a TTS robot.
Voice Cloning: a Multi-Speaker Text-to-Speech Synthesis Approach based on Transfer Learning2021-02-10   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Deep learning models are becoming predominant in many fields of machine learning. Text-to-Speech (TTS), the process of synthesizing artificial speech from text, is no exception. To this end, a deep neural network is usually trained using a corpus of several hours of recorded speech from a single speaker. Trying to produce the voice of a speaker other than the one learned is expensive and requires large effort since it is necessary to record a new dataset and retrain the model. This is the main reason why the TTS models are usually single speaker. The proposed approach has the goal to overcome these limitations trying to obtain a system which is able to model a multi-speaker acoustic space. This allows the generation of speech audio similar to the voice of different target speakers, even if they were not observed during the training phase.
Investigating context features hidden in End-to-End TTS2019-02-25   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Recent studies have introduced end-to-end TTS, which integrates the production of context and acoustic features in statistical parametric speech synthesis. As a result, a single neural network replaced laborious feature engineering with automated feature learning. However, little is known about what types of context information end-to-end TTS extracts from text input before synthesizing speech, and the previous knowledge about context features is barely utilized. In this work, we first point out the model similarity between end-to-end TTS and parametric TTS. Based on the similarity, we evaluate the quality of encoder outputs from an end-to-end TTS system against eight criteria that are derived from a standard set of context information used in parametric TTS. We conduct experiments using an evaluation procedure that has been newly developed in the machine learning literature for quantitative analysis of neural representations, while adapting it to the TTS domain. Experimental results show that the encoder outputs reflect both linguistic and phonetic contexts, such as vowel reduction at phoneme level, lexical stress at syllable level, and part-of-speech at word level, possibly due to the joint optimization of context and acoustic features.
GraphSpeech: Syntax-Aware Graph Attention Network For Neural Speech Synthesis2020-10-23   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Attention-based end-to-end text-to-speech synthesis (TTS) is superior to conventional statistical methods in many ways. Transformer-based TTS is one of such successful implementations. While Transformer TTS models the speech frame sequence well with a self-attention mechanism, it does not associate input text with output utterances from a syntactic point of view at sentence level. We propose a novel neural TTS model, denoted as GraphSpeech, that is formulated under graph neural network framework. GraphSpeech encodes explicitly the syntactic relation of input lexical tokens in a sentence, and incorporates such information to derive syntactically motivated character embeddings for TTS attention mechanism. Experiments show that GraphSpeech consistently outperforms the Transformer TTS baseline in terms of spectrum and prosody rendering of utterances.
Synth2Aug: Cross-domain speaker recognition with TTS synthesized speech2020-11-23   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
In recent years, Text-To-Speech (TTS) has been used as a data augmentation technique for speech recognition to help complement inadequacies in the training data. Correspondingly, we investigate the use of a multi-speaker TTS system to synthesize speech in support of speaker recognition. In this study we focus the analysis on tasks where a relatively small number of speakers is available for training. We observe on our datasets that TTS synthesized speech improves cross-domain speaker recognition performance and can be combined effectively with multi-style training. Additionally, we explore the effectiveness of different types of text transcripts used for TTS synthesis. Results suggest that matching the textual content of the target domain is a good practice, and if that is not feasible, a transcript with a sufficiently large vocabulary is recommended.
Towards Natural Bilingual and Code-Switched Speech Synthesis Based on Mix of Monolingual Recordings and Cross-Lingual Voice Conversion2020-10-15   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Recent state-of-the-art neural text-to-speech (TTS) synthesis models have dramatically improved intelligibility and naturalness of generated speech from text. However, building a good bilingual or code-switched TTS for a particular voice is still a challenge. The main reason is that it is not easy to obtain a bilingual corpus from a speaker who achieves native-level fluency in both languages. In this paper, we explore the use of Mandarin speech recordings from a Mandarin speaker, and English speech recordings from another English speaker to build high-quality bilingual and code-switched TTS for both speakers. A Tacotron2-based cross-lingual voice conversion system is employed to generate the Mandarin speaker's English speech and the English speaker's Mandarin speech, which show good naturalness and speaker similarity. The obtained bilingual data are then augmented with code-switched utterances synthesized using a Transformer model. With these data, three neural TTS models -- Tacotron2, Transformer and FastSpeech are applied for building bilingual and code-switched TTS. Subjective evaluation results show that all the three systems can produce (near-)native-level speech in both languages for each of the speaker.
FPETS : Fully Parallel End-to-End Text-to-Speech System2020-02-09   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
End-to-end Text-to-speech (TTS) system can greatly improve the quality of synthesised speech. But it usually suffers form high time latency due to its auto-regressive structure. And the synthesised speech may also suffer from some error modes, e.g. repeated words, mispronunciations, and skipped words. In this paper, we propose a novel non-autoregressive, fully parallel end-to-end TTS system (FPETS). It utilizes a new alignment model and the recently proposed U-shape convolutional structure, UFANS. Different from RNN, UFANS can capture long term information in a fully parallel manner. Trainable position encoding and two-step training strategy are used for learning better alignments. Experimental results show FPETS utilizes the power of parallel computation and reaches a significant speed up of inference compared with state-of-the-art end-to-end TTS systems. More specifically, FPETS is 600X faster than Tacotron2, 50X faster than DCTTS and 10X faster than Deep Voice3. And FPETS can generates audios with equal or better quality and fewer errors comparing with other system. As far as we know, FPETS is the first end-to-end TTS system which is fully parallel.
Cotatron: Transcription-Guided Speech Encoder for Any-to-Many Voice Conversion without Parallel Data2020-05-07   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
We propose Cotatron, a transcription-guided speech encoder for speaker-independent linguistic representation. Cotatron is based on the multispeaker TTS architecture and can be trained with conventional TTS datasets. We train a voice conversion system to reconstruct speech with Cotatron features, which is similar to the previous methods based on Phonetic Posteriorgram (PPG). By training and evaluating our system with 108 speakers from the VCTK dataset, we outperform the previous method in terms of both naturalness and speaker similarity. Our system can also convert speech from speakers that are unseen during training, and utilize ASR to automate the transcription with minimal reduction of the performance. Audio samples are available at https://mindslab-ai.github.io/cotatron, and the code with a pre-trained model will be made available soon.
Learning Speaker Embedding from Text-to-Speech2020-10-21   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Zero-shot multi-speaker Text-to-Speech (TTS) generates target speaker voices given an input text and the corresponding speaker embedding. In this work, we investigate the effectiveness of the TTS reconstruction objective to improve representation learning for speaker verification. We jointly trained end-to-end Tacotron 2 TTS and speaker embedding networks in a self-supervised fashion. We hypothesize that the embeddings will contain minimal phonetic information since the TTS decoder will obtain that information from the textual input. TTS reconstruction can also be combined with speaker classification to enhance these embeddings further. Once trained, the speaker encoder computes representations for the speaker verification task, while the rest of the TTS blocks are discarded. We investigated training TTS from either manual or ASR-generated transcripts. The latter allows us to train embeddings on datasets without manual transcripts. We compared ASR transcripts and Kaldi phone alignments as TTS inputs, showing that the latter performed better due to their finer resolution. Unsupervised TTS embeddings improved EER by 2.06\% absolute with regard to i-vectors for the LibriTTS dataset. TTS with speaker classification loss improved EER by 0.28\% and 0.73\% absolutely from a model using only speaker classification loss in LibriTTS and Voxceleb1 respectively.
Enhancing Speech Intelligibility in Text-To-Speech Synthesis using Speaking Style Conversion2020-08-13   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
The increased adoption of digital assistants makes text-to-speech (TTS) synthesis systems an indispensable feature of modern mobile devices. It is hence desirable to build a system capable of generating highly intelligible speech in the presence of noise. Past studies have investigated style conversion in TTS synthesis, yet degraded synthesized quality often leads to worse intelligibility. To overcome such limitations, we proposed a novel transfer learning approach using Tacotron and WaveRNN based TTS synthesis. The proposed speech system exploits two modification strategies: (a) Lombard speaking style data and (b) Spectral Shaping and Dynamic Range Compression (SSDRC) which has been shown to provide high intelligibility gains by redistributing the signal energy on the time-frequency domain. We refer to this extension as Lombard-SSDRC TTS system. Intelligibility enhancement as quantified by the Intelligibility in Bits (SIIB-Gauss) measure shows that the proposed Lombard-SSDRC TTS system shows significant relative improvement between 110% and 130% in speech-shaped noise (SSN), and 47% to 140% in competing-speaker noise (CSN) against the state-of-the-art TTS approach. Additional subjective evaluation shows that Lombard-SSDRC TTS successfully increases the speech intelligibility with relative improvement of 455% for SSN and 104% for CSN in median keyword correction rate compared to the baseline TTS method.
A Neural Text-to-Speech Model Utilizing Broadcast Data Mixed with Background Music2021-03-04   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Recently, it has become easier to obtain speech data from various media such as the internet or YouTube, but directly utilizing them to train a neural text-to-speech (TTS) model is difficult. The proportion of clean speech is insufficient and the remainder includes background music. Even with the global style token (GST). Therefore, we propose the following method to successfully train an end-to-end TTS model with limited broadcast data. First, the background music is removed from the speech by introducing a music filter. Second, the GST-TTS model with an auxiliary quality classifier is trained with the filtered speech and a small amount of clean speech. In particular, the quality classifier makes the embedding vector of the GST layer focus on representing the speech quality (filtered or clean) of the input speech. The experimental results verified that the proposed method synthesized much more high-quality speech than conventional methods.
LRSpeech: Extremely Low-Resource Speech Synthesis and Recognition2020-08-09   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Speech synthesis (text to speech, TTS) and recognition (automatic speech recognition, ASR) are important speech tasks, and require a large amount of text and speech pairs for model training. However, there are more than 6,000 languages in the world and most languages are lack of speech training data, which poses significant challenges when building TTS and ASR systems for extremely low-resource languages. In this paper, we develop LRSpeech, a TTS and ASR system under the extremely low-resource setting, which can support rare languages with low data cost. LRSpeech consists of three key techniques: 1) pre-training on rich-resource languages and fine-tuning on low-resource languages; 2) dual transformation between TTS and ASR to iteratively boost the accuracy of each other; 3) knowledge distillation to customize the TTS model on a high-quality target-speaker voice and improve the ASR model on multiple voices. We conduct experiments on an experimental language (English) and a truly low-resource language (Lithuanian) to verify the effectiveness of LRSpeech. Experimental results show that LRSpeech 1) achieves high quality for TTS in terms of both intelligibility (more than 98% intelligibility rate) and naturalness (above 3.5 mean opinion score (MOS)) of the synthesized speech, which satisfy the requirements for industrial deployment, 2) achieves promising recognition accuracy for ASR, and 3) last but not least, uses extremely low-resource training data. We also conduct comprehensive analyses on LRSpeech with different amounts of data resources, and provide valuable insights and guidances for industrial deployment. We are currently deploying LRSpeech into a commercialized cloud speech service to support TTS on more rare languages.
FastSpeech: Fast, Robust and Controllable Text to Speech2019-11-20   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Neural network based end-to-end text to speech (TTS) has significantly improved the quality of synthesized speech. Prominent methods (e.g., Tacotron 2) usually first generate mel-spectrogram from text, and then synthesize speech from the mel-spectrogram using vocoder such as WaveNet. Compared with traditional concatenative and statistical parametric approaches, neural network based end-to-end models suffer from slow inference speed, and the synthesized speech is usually not robust (i.e., some words are skipped or repeated) and lack of controllability (voice speed or prosody control). In this work, we propose a novel feed-forward network based on Transformer to generate mel-spectrogram in parallel for TTS. Specifically, we extract attention alignments from an encoder-decoder based teacher model for phoneme duration prediction, which is used by a length regulator to expand the source phoneme sequence to match the length of the target mel-spectrogram sequence for parallel mel-spectrogram generation. Experiments on the LJSpeech dataset show that our parallel model matches autoregressive models in terms of speech quality, nearly eliminates the problem of word skipping and repeating in particularly hard cases, and can adjust voice speed smoothly. Most importantly, compared with autoregressive Transformer TTS, our model speeds up mel-spectrogram generation by 270x and the end-to-end speech synthesis by 38x. Therefore, we call our model FastSpeech.
Representation Mixing for TTS Synthesis2018-11-24   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Recent character and phoneme-based parametric TTS systems using deep learning have shown strong performance in natural speech generation. However, the choice between character or phoneme input can create serious limitations for practical deployment, as direct control of pronunciation is crucial in certain cases. We demonstrate a simple method for combining multiple types of linguistic information in a single encoder, named representation mixing, enabling flexible choice between character, phoneme, or mixed representations during inference. Experiments and user studies on a public audiobook corpus show the efficacy of our approach.
Individually amplified text-to-speech2020-12-03   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Text-to-speech (TTS) offers the opportunity to compensate for a hearing loss at the source rather than correcting for it at the receiving end. This removes limitations such as time constraints for algorithms that amplify a sound individually and can lead to higher speech quality for hearing-impaired listeners. We propose an algorithm that restores loudness to normal perception at a high resolution in time, frequency and level, and embed it in a TTS system that uses Tacotron2 and WaveGlow to produce individually amplified speech. Subjective evaluations of speech quality showed that the proposed algorithm led to high-quality audio. Mean opinion scores were predicted well by the STOI metric. Transfer learning led to a quick adaption of the produced spectra from original speech to individually amplified speech and gives us a way to train an individual TTS system efficiently.
MultiSpeech: Multi-Speaker Text to Speech with Transformer2020-06-08   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Transformer-based text to speech (TTS) model (e.g., Transformer TTS~\cite{li2019neural}, FastSpeech~\cite{ren2019fastspeech}) has shown the advantages of training and inference efficiency over RNN-based model (e.g., Tacotron~\cite{shen2018natural}) due to its parallel computation in training and/or inference. However, the parallel computation increases the difficulty while learning the alignment between text and speech in Transformer, which is further magnified in the multi-speaker scenario with noisy data and diverse speakers, and hinders the applicability of Transformer for multi-speaker TTS. In this paper, we develop a robust and high-quality multi-speaker Transformer TTS system called MultiSpeech, with several specially designed components/techniques to improve text-to-speech alignment: 1) a diagonal constraint on the weight matrix of encoder-decoder attention in both training and inference; 2) layer normalization on phoneme embedding in encoder to better preserve position information; 3) a bottleneck in decoder pre-net to prevent copy between consecutive speech frames. Experiments on VCTK and LibriTTS multi-speaker datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of MultiSpeech: 1) it synthesizes more robust and better quality multi-speaker voice than naive Transformer based TTS; 2) with a MutiSpeech model as the teacher, we obtain a strong multi-speaker FastSpeech model with almost zero quality degradation while enjoying extremely fast inference speed.
Bootstrapping non-parallel voice conversion from speaker-adaptive text-to-speech2019-09-14   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Voice conversion (VC) and text-to-speech (TTS) are two tasks that share a similar objective, generating speech with a target voice. However, they are usually developed independently under vastly different frameworks. In this paper, we propose a methodology to bootstrap a VC system from a pretrained speaker-adaptive TTS model and unify the techniques as well as the interpretations of these two tasks. Moreover by offloading the heavy data demand to the training stage of the TTS model, our VC system can be built using a small amount of target speaker speech data. It also opens up the possibility of using speech in a foreign unseen language to build the system. Our subjective evaluations show that the proposed framework is able to not only achieve competitive performance in the standard intra-language scenario but also adapt and convert using speech utterances in an unseen language.
Semi-Supervised Generative Modeling for Controllable Speech Synthesis2019-10-03   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
We present a novel generative model that combines state-of-the-art neural text-to-speech (TTS) with semi-supervised probabilistic latent variable models. By providing partial supervision to some of the latent variables, we are able to force them to take on consistent and interpretable purposes, which previously hasn't been possible with purely unsupervised TTS models. We demonstrate that our model is able to reliably discover and control important but rarely labelled attributes of speech, such as affect and speaking rate, with as little as 1% (30 minutes) supervision. Even at such low supervision levels we do not observe a degradation of synthesis quality compared to a state-of-the-art baseline. Audio samples are available on the web.