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ACTRCE: Augmenting Experience via Teacher's Advice For Multi-Goal Reinforcement Learning2019-02-12   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Sparse reward is one of the most challenging problems in reinforcement learning (RL). Hindsight Experience Replay (HER) attempts to address this issue by converting a failed experience to a successful one by relabeling the goals. Despite its effectiveness, HER has limited applicability because it lacks a compact and universal goal representation. We present Augmenting experienCe via TeacheR's adviCE (ACTRCE), an efficient reinforcement learning technique that extends the HER framework using natural language as the goal representation. We first analyze the differences among goal representation, and show that ACTRCE can efficiently solve difficult reinforcement learning problems in challenging 3D navigation tasks, whereas HER with non-language goal representation failed to learn. We also show that with language goal representations, the agent can generalize to unseen instructions, and even generalize to instructions with unseen lexicons. We further demonstrate it is crucial to use hindsight advice to solve challenging tasks, and even small amount of advice is sufficient for the agent to achieve good performance.
Influencing Reinforcement Learning through Natural Language Guidance2021-04-03   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Interactive reinforcement learning agents use human feedback or instruction to help them learn in complex environments. Often, this feedback comes in the form of a discrete signal that is either positive or negative. While informative, this information can be difficult to generalize on its own. In this work, we explore how natural language advice can be used to provide a richer feedback signal to a reinforcement learning agent by extending policy shaping, a well-known Interactive reinforcement learning technique. Usually policy shaping employs a human feedback policy to help an agent to learn more about how to achieve its goal. In our case, we replace this human feedback policy with policy generated based on natural language advice. We aim to inspect if the generated natural language reasoning provides support to a deep reinforcement learning agent to decide its actions successfully in any given environment. So, we design our model with three networks: first one is the experience driven, next is the advice generator and third one is the advice driven. While the experience driven reinforcement learning agent chooses its actions being influenced by the environmental reward, the advice driven neural network with generated feedback by the advice generator for any new state selects its actions to assist the reinforcement learning agent to better policy shaping.
Automatic Curriculum Learning through Value Disagreement2020-06-16   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Continually solving new, unsolved tasks is the key to learning diverse behaviors. Through reinforcement learning (RL), we have made massive strides towards solving tasks that have a single goal. However, in the multi-task domain, where an agent needs to reach multiple goals, the choice of training goals can largely affect sample efficiency. When biological agents learn, there is often an organized and meaningful order to which learning happens. Inspired by this, we propose setting up an automatic curriculum for goals that the agent needs to solve. Our key insight is that if we can sample goals at the frontier of the set of goals that an agent is able to reach, it will provide a significantly stronger learning signal compared to randomly sampled goals. To operationalize this idea, we introduce a goal proposal module that prioritizes goals that maximize the epistemic uncertainty of the Q-function of the policy. This simple technique samples goals that are neither too hard nor too easy for the agent to solve, hence enabling continual improvement. We evaluate our method across 13 multi-goal robotic tasks and 5 navigation tasks, and demonstrate performance gains over current state-of-the-art methods.
Complex Robotic Manipulation via Graph-Based Hindsight Goal Generation2020-07-27   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Reinforcement learning algorithms such as hindsight experience replay (HER) and hindsight goal generation (HGG) have been able to solve challenging robotic manipulation tasks in multi-goal settings with sparse rewards. HER achieves its training success through hindsight replays of past experience with heuristic goals, but under-performs in challenging tasks in which goals are difficult to explore. HGG enhances HER by selecting intermediate goals that are easy to achieve in the short term and promising to lead to target goals in the long term. This guided exploration makes HGG applicable to tasks in which target goals are far away from the object's initial position. However, HGG is not applicable to manipulation tasks with obstacles because the euclidean metric used for HGG is not an accurate distance metric in such environments. In this paper, we propose graph-based hindsight goal generation (G-HGG), an extension of HGG selecting hindsight goals based on shortest distances in an obstacle-avoiding graph, which is a discrete representation of the environment. We evaluated G-HGG on four challenging manipulation tasks with obstacles, where significant enhancements in both sample efficiency and overall success rate are shown over HGG and HER. Videos can be viewed at https://sites.google.com/view/demos-g-hgg/.
PlanGAN: Model-based Planning With Sparse Rewards and Multiple Goals2020-06-01   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Learning with sparse rewards remains a significant challenge in reinforcement learning (RL), especially when the aim is to train a policy capable of achieving multiple different goals. To date, the most successful approaches for dealing with multi-goal, sparse reward environments have been model-free RL algorithms. In this work we propose PlanGAN, a model-based algorithm specifically designed for solving multi-goal tasks in environments with sparse rewards. Our method builds on the fact that any trajectory of experience collected by an agent contains useful information about how to achieve the goals observed during that trajectory. We use this to train an ensemble of conditional generative models (GANs) to generate plausible trajectories that lead the agent from its current state towards a specified goal. We then combine these imagined trajectories into a novel planning algorithm in order to achieve the desired goal as efficiently as possible. The performance of PlanGAN has been tested on a number of robotic navigation/manipulation tasks in comparison with a range of model-free reinforcement learning baselines, including Hindsight Experience Replay. Our studies indicate that PlanGAN can achieve comparable performance whilst being around 4-8 times more sample efficient.
Deep Reinforcement Learning for Complex Manipulation Tasks with Sparse Feedback2020-01-12   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Learning optimal policies from sparse feedback is a known challenge in reinforcement learning. Hindsight Experience Replay (HER) is a multi-goal reinforcement learning algorithm that comes to solve such tasks. The algorithm treats every failure as a success for an alternative (virtual) goal that has been achieved in the episode and then generalizes from that virtual goal to real goals. HER has known flaws and is limited to relatively simple tasks. In this thesis, we present three algorithms based on the existing HER algorithm that improves its performances. First, we prioritize virtual goals from which the agent will learn more valuable information. We call this property the \textit{instructiveness} of the virtual goal and define it by a heuristic measure, which expresses how well the agent will be able to generalize from that virtual goal to actual goals. Secondly, we designed a filtering process that detects and removes misleading samples that may induce bias throughout the learning process. Lastly, we enable the learning of complex, sequential, tasks using a form of curriculum learning combined with HER. We call this algorithm \textit{Curriculum HER}. To test our algorithms, we built three challenging manipulation environments with sparse reward functions. Each environment has three levels of complexity. Our empirical results show vast improvement in the final success rate and sample efficiency when compared to the original HER algorithm.
Bias-Reduced Hindsight Experience Replay with Virtual Goal Prioritization2020-03-20   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Hindsight Experience Replay (HER) is a multi-goal reinforcement learning algorithm for sparse reward functions. The algorithm treats every failure as a success for an alternative (virtual) goal that has been achieved in the episode. Virtual goals are randomly selected, irrespective of which are most instructive for the agent. In this paper, we present two improvements over the existing HER algorithm. First, we prioritize virtual goals from which the agent will learn more valuable information. We call this property the instructiveness of the virtual goal and define it by a heuristic measure, which expresses how well the agent will be able to generalize from that virtual goal to actual goals. Secondly, we reduce existing bias in HER by the removal of misleading samples. To test our algorithms, we built two challenging environments with sparse reward functions. Our empirical results in both environments show vast improvement in the final success rate and sample efficiency when compared to the original HER algorithm. A video showing experimental results is available at https://youtu.be/3cZwfK8Nfps .
Inverse Reinforcement Learning with Natural Language Goals2020-08-21   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Humans generally use natural language to communicate task requirements amongst each other. It is desirable that this would be similar for autonomous machines (e.g. robots) such that humans can convey goals or assign tasks more easily. However, understanding natural language goals and mapping them to sequences of states and actions is challenging. Previous research has encountered difficulty generalizing learned policies to new natural language goals and environments. In this paper, we propose an adversarial inverse reinforcement learning algorithm that learns a language-conditioned policy and reward function. To improve the generalization of the learned policy and reward function, we use a variational goal generator that relabels trajectories and samples diverse goals during training. Our algorithm outperforms baselines by a large margin on a vision-based natural language instruction following dataset, demonstrating a promising advance in providing natural language instructions to agents without reliance on instruction templates.
MapGo: Model-Assisted Policy Optimization for Goal-Oriented Tasks2021-05-13   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
In Goal-oriented Reinforcement learning, relabeling the raw goals in past experience to provide agents with hindsight ability is a major solution to the reward sparsity problem. In this paper, to enhance the diversity of relabeled goals, we develop FGI (Foresight Goal Inference), a new relabeling strategy that relabels the goals by looking into the future with a learned dynamics model. Besides, to improve sample efficiency, we propose to use the dynamics model to generate simulated trajectories for policy training. By integrating these two improvements, we introduce the MapGo framework (Model-Assisted Policy Optimization for Goal-oriented tasks). In our experiments, we first show the effectiveness of the FGI strategy compared with the hindsight one, and then show that the MapGo framework achieves higher sample efficiency when compared to model-free baselines on a set of complicated tasks.
Learning on a Budget via Teacher Imitation2021-04-17   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Deep Reinforcement Learning (RL) techniques can benefit greatly from leveraging prior experience, which can be either self-generated or acquired from other entities. Action advising is a framework that provides a flexible way to transfer such knowledge in the form of actions between teacher-student peers. However, due to the realistic concerns, the number of these interactions is limited with a budget; therefore, it is crucial to perform these in the most appropriate moments. There have been several promising studies recently that address this problem setting especially from the student's perspective. Despite their success, they have some shortcomings when it comes to the practical applicability and integrity as an overall solution to the learning from advice challenge. In this paper, we extend the idea of advice reusing via teacher imitation to construct a unified approach that addresses both advice collection and advice utilisation problems. Furthermore, we also propose a method to automatically determine the relevant hyperparameters of these components on-the-fly to make it able to adapt to any task with minimal human intervention. The experiments we performed in 5 different Atari games verify that our algorithm can outperform its competitors by achieving state-of-the-art performance, and its components themselves also provides significant advantages individually.
Self-Educated Language Agent With Hindsight Experience Replay For Instruction Following2019-12-06   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Language creates a compact representation of the world and allows the description of unlimited situations and objectives through compositionality. These properties make it a natural fit to guide the training of interactive agents as it could ease recurrent challenges in Reinforcement Learning such as sample complexity, generalization, or multi-tasking. Yet, it remains an open-problem to relate language and RL in even simple instruction following scenarios. Current methods rely on expert demonstrations, auxiliary losses, or inductive biases in neural architectures. In this paper, we propose an orthogonal approach called Textual Hindsight Experience Replay (THER) that extends the Hindsight Experience Replay approach to the language setting. Whenever the agent does not fulfill its instruction, THER learns to output a new directive that matches the agent trajectory, and it relabels the episode with a positive reward. To do so, THER learns to map a state into an instruction by using past successful trajectories, which removes the need to have external expert interventions to relabel episodes as in vanilla HER. We observe that this simple idea also initiates a learning synergy between language acquisition and policy learning on instruction following tasks in the BabyAI environment.
Rewriting History with Inverse RL: Hindsight Inference for Policy Improvement2020-02-25   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Multi-task reinforcement learning (RL) aims to simultaneously learn policies for solving many tasks. Several prior works have found that relabeling past experience with different reward functions can improve sample efficiency. Relabeling methods typically ask: if, in hindsight, we assume that our experience was optimal for some task, for what task was it optimal? In this paper, we show that hindsight relabeling is inverse RL, an observation that suggests that we can use inverse RL in tandem for RL algorithms to efficiently solve many tasks. We use this idea to generalize goal-relabeling techniques from prior work to arbitrary classes of tasks. Our experiments confirm that relabeling data using inverse RL accelerates learning in general multi-task settings, including goal-reaching, domains with discrete sets of rewards, and those with linear reward functions.
Maximum Entropy Gain Exploration for Long Horizon Multi-goal Reinforcement Learning2020-07-06   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
What goals should a multi-goal reinforcement learning agent pursue during training in long-horizon tasks? When the desired (test time) goal distribution is too distant to offer a useful learning signal, we argue that the agent should not pursue unobtainable goals. Instead, it should set its own intrinsic goals that maximize the entropy of the historical achieved goal distribution. We propose to optimize this objective by having the agent pursue past achieved goals in sparsely explored areas of the goal space, which focuses exploration on the frontier of the achievable goal set. We show that our strategy achieves an order of magnitude better sample efficiency than the prior state of the art on long-horizon multi-goal tasks including maze navigation and block stacking.
DECSTR: Learning Goal-Directed Abstract Behaviors using Pre-Verbal Spatial Predicates in Intrinsically Motivated Agents2020-06-12   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Intrinsically motivated agents freely explore their environment and set their own goals. Such goals are traditionally represented as specific states, but recent works introduced the use of language to facilitate abstraction. Language can, for example, represent goals as sets of general properties that surrounding objects should verify. However, language-conditioned agents are trained simultaneously to understand language and to act, which seems to contrast with how children learn: infants demonstrate goal-oriented behaviors and abstract spatial concepts very early in their development, before language mastery. Guided by these findings from developmental psychology, we introduce a high-level state representation based on natural semantic predicates that describe spatial relations between objects and that are known to be present early in infants. In a robotic manipulation environment, our DECSTR system explores this representation space by manipulating objects, and efficiently learns to achieve any reachable configuration within it. It does so by leveraging an object-centered modular architecture, a symmetry inductive bias, and a new form of automatic curriculum learning for goal selection and policy learning. As with children, language acquisition takes place in a second phase, independently from goal-oriented sensorimotor learning. This is done via a new goal generation module, conditioned on instructions describing expected transformations in object relations. We present ablations studies for each component and highlight several advantages of targeting abstract goals over specific ones. We further show that using this intermediate representation enables efficient language grounding by evaluating agents on sequences of language instructions and their logical combinations.
Reinforcement Learning with Prototypical Representations2021-02-22   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Learning effective representations in image-based environments is crucial for sample efficient Reinforcement Learning (RL). Unfortunately, in RL, representation learning is confounded with the exploratory experience of the agent -- learning a useful representation requires diverse data, while effective exploration is only possible with coherent representations. Furthermore, we would like to learn representations that not only generalize across tasks but also accelerate downstream exploration for efficient task-specific training. To address these challenges we propose Proto-RL, a self-supervised framework that ties representation learning with exploration through prototypical representations. These prototypes simultaneously serve as a summarization of the exploratory experience of an agent as well as a basis for representing observations. We pre-train these task-agnostic representations and prototypes on environments without downstream task information. This enables state-of-the-art downstream policy learning on a set of difficult continuous control tasks.
Visual Reinforcement Learning with Imagined Goals2018-12-04   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
For an autonomous agent to fulfill a wide range of user-specified goals at test time, it must be able to learn broadly applicable and general-purpose skill repertoires. Furthermore, to provide the requisite level of generality, these skills must handle raw sensory input such as images. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that acquires such general-purpose skills by combining unsupervised representation learning and reinforcement learning of goal-conditioned policies. Since the particular goals that might be required at test-time are not known in advance, the agent performs a self-supervised "practice" phase where it imagines goals and attempts to achieve them. We learn a visual representation with three distinct purposes: sampling goals for self-supervised practice, providing a structured transformation of raw sensory inputs, and computing a reward signal for goal reaching. We also propose a retroactive goal relabeling scheme to further improve the sample-efficiency of our method. Our off-policy algorithm is efficient enough to learn policies that operate on raw image observations and goals for a real-world robotic system, and substantially outperforms prior techniques.
Useful Policy Invariant Shaping from Arbitrary Advice2020-11-02   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Reinforcement learning is a powerful learning paradigm in which agents can learn to maximize sparse and delayed reward signals. Although RL has had many impressive successes in complex domains, learning can take hours, days, or even years of training data. A major challenge of contemporary RL research is to discover how to learn with less data. Previous work has shown that domain information can be successfully used to shape the reward; by adding additional reward information, the agent can learn with much less data. Furthermore, if the reward is constructed from a potential function, the optimal policy is guaranteed to be unaltered. While such potential-based reward shaping (PBRS) holds promise, it is limited by the need for a well-defined potential function. Ideally, we would like to be able to take arbitrary advice from a human or other agent and improve performance without affecting the optimal policy. The recently introduced dynamic potential based advice (DPBA) method tackles this challenge by admitting arbitrary advice from a human or other agent and improves performance without affecting the optimal policy. The main contribution of this paper is to expose, theoretically and empirically, a flaw in DPBA. Alternatively, to achieve the ideal goals, we present a simple method called policy invariant explicit shaping (PIES) and show theoretically and empirically that PIES succeeds where DPBA fails.
Unsupervised Visuomotor Control through Distributional Planning Networks2019-02-14   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
While reinforcement learning (RL) has the potential to enable robots to autonomously acquire a wide range of skills, in practice, RL usually requires manual, per-task engineering of reward functions, especially in real world settings where aspects of the environment needed to compute progress are not directly accessible. To enable robots to autonomously learn skills, we instead consider the problem of reinforcement learning without access to rewards. We aim to learn an unsupervised embedding space under which the robot can measure progress towards a goal for itself. Our approach explicitly optimizes for a metric space under which action sequences that reach a particular state are optimal when the goal is the final state reached. This enables learning effective and control-centric representations that lead to more autonomous reinforcement learning algorithms. Our experiments on three simulated environments and two real-world manipulation problems show that our method can learn effective goal metrics from unlabeled interaction, and use the learned goal metrics for autonomous reinforcement learning.
Where do goals come from? A Generic Approach to Autonomous Goal-System Development2014-10-21   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Goals express agents' intentions and allow them to organize their behavior based on low-dimensional abstractions of high-dimensional world states. How can agents develop such goals autonomously? This paper proposes a detailed conceptual and computational account to this longstanding problem. We argue to consider goals as high-level abstractions of lower-level intention mechanisms such as rewards and values, and point out that goals need to be considered alongside with a detection of the own actions' effects. We propose Latent Goal Analysis as a computational learning formulation thereof, and show constructively that any reward or value function can by explained by goals and such self-detection as latent mechanisms. We first show that learned goals provide a highly effective dimensionality reduction in a practical reinforcement learning problem. Then, we investigate a developmental scenario in which entirely task-unspecific rewards induced by visual saliency lead to self and goal representations that constitute goal-directed reaching.
Autonomous Goal Exploration using Learned Goal Spaces for Visuomotor Skill Acquisition in Robots2019-06-10   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
The automatic and efficient discovery of skills, without supervision, for long-living autonomous agents, remains a challenge of Artificial Intelligence. Intrinsically Motivated Goal Exploration Processes give learning agents a human-inspired mechanism to sequentially select goals to achieve. This approach gives a new perspective on the lifelong learning problem, with promising results on both simulated and real-world experiments. Until recently, those algorithms were restricted to domains with experimenter-knowledge, since the Goal Space used by the agents was built on engineered feature extractors. The recent advances of deep representation learning, enables new ways of designing those feature extractors, using directly the agent experience. Recent work has shown the potential of those methods on simple yet challenging simulated domains. In this paper, we present recent results showing the applicability of those principles on a real-world robotic setup, where a 6-joint robotic arm learns to manipulate a ball inside an arena, by choosing goals in a space learned from its past experience.