News Blog Paper China
Instance-Level Explanations for Fraud Detection: A Case Study2018-06-19   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Fraud detection is a difficult problem that can benefit from predictive modeling. However, the verification of a prediction is challenging; for a single insurance policy, the model only provides a prediction score. We present a case study where we reflect on different instance-level model explanation techniques to aid a fraud detection team in their work. To this end, we designed two novel dashboards combining various state-of-the-art explanation techniques. These enable the domain expert to analyze and understand predictions, dramatically speeding up the process of filtering potential fraud cases. Finally, we discuss the lessons learned and outline open research issues.
Applying support vector data description for fraud detection2020-05-31   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Fraud detection is an important topic that applies to various enterprises such as banking and financial sectors, insurance, government agencies, law enforcement, and more. Fraud attempts have been risen remarkably in current years, shaping fraud detection an essential topic for research. One of the main challenges in fraud detection is acquiring fraud samples which is a complex and challenging task. In order to deal with this challenge, we apply one-class classification methods such as SVDD which does not need the fraud samples for training. Also, we present our algorithm REDBSCAN which is an extension of DBSCAN to reduce the number of samples and select those that keep the shape of data. The results obtained by the implementation of the proposed method indicated that the fraud detection process was improved in both performance and speed.
FraudJudger: Real-World Data Oriented Fraud Detection on Digital Payment Platforms2019-09-05   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Automated fraud behaviors detection on electronic payment platforms is a tough problem. Fraud users often exploit the vulnerability of payment platforms and the carelessness of users to defraud money, steal passwords, do money laundering, etc, which causes enormous losses to digital payment platforms and users. There are many challenges for fraud detection in practice. Traditional fraud detection methods require a large-scale manually labeled dataset, which is hard to obtain in reality. Manually labeled data cost tremendous human efforts. Besides, the continuous and rapid evolution of fraud users makes it hard to find new fraud patterns based on existing detection rules. In our work, we propose a real-world data oriented detection paradigm which can detect fraud users and upgrade its detection ability automatically. Based on the new paradigm, we design a novel fraud detection model, FraudJudger, to analyze users behaviors on digital payment platforms and detect fraud users with fewer labeled data in training. FraudJudger can learn the latent representations of users from unlabeled data with the help of Adversarial Autoencoder (AAE). Furthermore, FraudJudger can find new fraud patterns from unknown users by cluster analysis. Our experiment is based on a real-world electronic payment dataset. Comparing with other well-known fraud detection methods, FraudJudger can achieve better detection performance with only 10% labeled data.
Computer-Assisted Fraud Detection, From Active Learning to Reward Maximization2018-11-20   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
The automatic detection of frauds in banking transactions has been recently studied as a way to help the analysts finding fraudulent operations. Due to the availability of a human feedback, this task has been studied in the framework of active learning: the fraud predictor is allowed to sequentially call on an oracle. This human intervention is used to label new examples and improve the classification accuracy of the latter. Such a setting is not adapted in the case of fraud detection with financial data in European countries. Actually, as a human verification is mandatory to consider a fraud as really detected, it is not necessary to focus on improving the classifier. We introduce the setting of 'Computer-assisted fraud detection' where the goal is to minimize the number of non fraudulent operations submitted to an oracle. The existing methods are applied to this task and we show that a simple meta-algorithm provides competitive results in this scenario on benchmark datasets.
Deep Q-Network-based Adaptive Alert Threshold Selection Policy for Payment Fraud Systems in Retail Banking2020-10-21   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Machine learning models have widely been used in fraud detection systems. Most of the research and development efforts have been concentrated on improving the performance of the fraud scoring models. Yet, the downstream fraud alert systems still have limited to no model adoption and rely on manual steps. Alert systems are pervasively used across all payment channels in retail banking and play an important role in the overall fraud detection process. Current fraud detection systems end up with large numbers of dropped alerts due to their inability to account for the alert processing capacity. Ideally, alert threshold selection enables the system to maximize the fraud detection while balancing the upstream fraud scores and the available bandwidth of the alert processing teams. However, in practice, fixed thresholds that are used for their simplicity do not have this ability. In this paper, we propose an enhanced threshold selection policy for fraud alert systems. The proposed approach formulates the threshold selection as a sequential decision making problem and uses Deep Q-Network based reinforcement learning. Experimental results show that this adaptive approach outperforms the current static solutions by reducing the fraud losses as well as improving the operational efficiency of the alert system.
A Semi-supervised Graph Attentive Network for Financial Fraud Detection2020-02-28   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
With the rapid growth of financial services, fraud detection has been a very important problem to guarantee a healthy environment for both users and providers. Conventional solutions for fraud detection mainly use some rule-based methods or distract some features manually to perform prediction. However, in financial services, users have rich interactions and they themselves always show multifaceted information. These data form a large multiview network, which is not fully exploited by conventional methods. Additionally, among the network, only very few of the users are labelled, which also poses a great challenge for only utilizing labeled data to achieve a satisfied performance on fraud detection. To address the problem, we expand the labeled data through their social relations to get the unlabeled data and propose a semi-supervised attentive graph neural network, namedSemiGNN to utilize the multi-view labeled and unlabeled data for fraud detection. Moreover, we propose a hierarchical attention mechanism to better correlate different neighbors and different views. Simultaneously, the attention mechanism can make the model interpretable and tell what are the important factors for the fraud and why the users are predicted as fraud. Experimentally, we conduct the prediction task on the users of Alipay, one of the largest third-party online and offline cashless payment platform serving more than 4 hundreds of million users in China. By utilizing the social relations and the user attributes, our method can achieve a better accuracy compared with the state-of-the-art methods on two tasks. Moreover, the interpretable results also give interesting intuitions regarding the tasks.
Unsupervised anomaly detection for discrete sequence healthcare data2020-07-20   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Fraud in healthcare is widespread, as doctors could prescribe unnecessary treatments to increase bills. Insurance companies want to detect these anomalous fraudulent bills and reduce their losses. Traditional fraud detection methods use expert rules and manual data processing. Recently, machine learning techniques automate this process, but hand-labeled data is extremely costly and usually out of date. That is why unsupervised fraud detection system in healthcare is also of great importance. However, there are almost no applications of unsupervised anomaly detection based on the processing of sequential data. To process sequential data, we propose two deep learning approaches: LSTM neural network for prediction next patient visit and a seq2seq model. We assume that errors of predictions correspond to anomality for both cases and compare different ways to aggregate errors and detect abnormality of the whole sequence. For normalization of anomaly scores, we consider Empirical Distribution Function (EDF) approach: the algorithm can work with high class imbalance problems during aggregation of errors. We use real data on sequences of patients' visits data from a major insurance company. The results show that both models outperform a baseline for unsupervised anomaly detection. Our EDF approach improves the quality of LSTM model. Moreover, both models provide new state-of-the-art results for unsupervised anomaly detection for fraud detection in healthcare insurance.
Deep Learning Methods for Credit Card Fraud Detection2020-12-07   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Credit card frauds are at an ever-increasing rate and have become a major problem in the financial sector. Because of these frauds, card users are hesitant in making purchases and both the merchants and financial institutions bear heavy losses. Some major challenges in credit card frauds involve the availability of public data, high class imbalance in data, changing nature of frauds and the high number of false alarms. Machine learning techniques have been used to detect credit card frauds but no fraud detection systems have been able to offer great efficiency to date. Recent development of deep learning has been applied to solve complex problems in various areas. This paper presents a thorough study of deep learning methods for the credit card fraud detection problem and compare their performance with various machine learning algorithms on three different financial datasets. Experimental results show great performance of the proposed deep learning methods against traditional machine learning models and imply that the proposed approaches can be implemented effectively for real-world credit card fraud detection systems.
Detecting organized eCommerce fraud using scalable categorical clustering2019-10-10   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Online retail, eCommerce, frequently falls victim to fraud conducted by malicious customers (fraudsters) who obtain goods or services through deception. Fraud coordinated by groups of professional fraudsters that place several fraudulent orders to maximize their gain is referred to as organized fraud. Existing approaches to fraud detection typically analyze orders in isolation and they are not effective at identifying groups of fraudulent orders linked to organized fraud. These also wrongly identify many legitimate orders as fraud, which hinders their usage for automated fraud cancellation. We introduce a novel solution to detect organized fraud by analyzing orders in bulk. Our approach is based on clustering and aims to group together fraudulent orders placed by the same group of fraudsters. It selectively uses two existing techniques, agglomerative clustering and sampling to recursively group orders into small clusters in a reasonable amount of time. We assess our clustering technique on real-world orders placed on the Zalando website, the largest online apparel retailer in Europe1. Our clustering processes 100,000s of orders in a few hours and groups 35-45% of fraudulent orders together. We propose a simple technique built on top of our clustering that detects 26.2% of fraud while raising false alarms for only 0.1% of legitimate orders.
robROSE: A robust approach for dealing with imbalanced data in fraud detection2020-03-22   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
A major challenge when trying to detect fraud is that the fraudulent activities form a minority class which make up a very small proportion of the data set. In most data sets, fraud occurs in typically less than 0.5% of the cases. Detecting fraud in such a highly imbalanced data set typically leads to predictions that favor the majority group, causing fraud to remain undetected. We discuss some popular oversampling techniques that solve the problem of imbalanced data by creating synthetic samples that mimic the minority class. A frequent problem when analyzing real data is the presence of anomalies or outliers. When such atypical observations are present in the data, most oversampling techniques are prone to create synthetic samples that distort the detection algorithm and spoil the resulting analysis. A useful tool for anomaly detection is robust statistics, which aims to find the outliers by first fitting the majority of the data and then flagging data observations that deviate from it. In this paper, we present a robust version of ROSE, called robROSE, which combines several promising approaches to cope simultaneously with the problem of imbalanced data and the presence of outliers. The proposed method achieves to enhance the presence of the fraud cases while ignoring anomalies. The good performance of our new sampling technique is illustrated on simulated and real data sets and it is shown that robROSE can provide better insight in the structure of the data. The source code of the robROSE algorithm is made freely available.
EnsemFDet: An Ensemble Approach to Fraud Detection based on Bipartite Graph2020-06-15   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Fraud detection is extremely critical for e-commerce business. It is the intent of the companies to detect and prevent fraud as early as possible. Existing fraud detection methods try to identify unexpected dense subgraphs and treat related nodes as suspicious. Spectral relaxation-based methods solve the problem efficiently but hurt the performance due to the relaxed constraints. Besides, many methods cannot be accelerated with parallel computation or control the number of returned suspicious nodes because they provide a set of subgraphs with diverse node sizes. These drawbacks affect the real-world applications of existing methods. In this paper, we propose an Ensemble-based Fraud Detection (EnsemFDet) method to scale up fraud detection in bipartite graphs by decomposing the original problem into subproblems on small-sized subgraphs. By oversampling the graph and solving the subproblems, the ensemble approach further votes suspicious nodes without sacrificing the prediction accuracy. Extensive experiments have been done on real transaction data from JD.com, which is one of the world's largest e-commerce platforms. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness, practicability, and scalability of EnsemFDet. More specifically, EnsemFDet is up to 100x faster than the state-of-the-art methods due to its parallelism with all aspects of data.
Fraud Detection using Data-Driven approach2020-09-08   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
The extensive use of the internet is continuously drifting businesses to incorporate their services in the online environment. One of the first spectrums to embrace this evolution was the banking sector. In fact, the first known online banking service came in 1980. It was deployed from a community bank located in Knoxville, called the United American Bank. Since then, internet banking has been offering ease and efficiency to costumers in completing their daily banking tasks. The ever increasing use of internet banking and a large number of online transactions increased fraudulent behavior also. As if fraud increase was not enough, the massive number of online transactions further increased the data complexity. Modern data sources are not only complex but generated at high speed and in real-time as well. This presents a serious problem and a definite reason why more advanced solutions are desired to protect financial service companies and credit cardholders. Therefore, this research paper aims to construct an efficient fraud detection model which is adaptive to customer behavior changes and tends to decrease fraud manipulation, by detecting and filtering fraud in real-time. In order to achieve this aim, a review of various methods is conducted, adding above a personal experience working in the Banking sector, specifically in the Fraud Detection office. Unlike the majority of reviewed methods, the proposed model in this research paper is able to detect fraud in the moment of occurrence using an incremental classifier. The evaluation of synthetic data, based on fraud scenarios selected in collaboration with domain experts that replicate typical, real-world attacks, shows that this approach correctly ranks complex frauds. In particular, our proposal detects fraudulent behavior and anomalies with up to 97\% detection rate while maintaining a satisfyingly low cost.
A Survey of Credit Card Fraud Detection Techniques: Data and Technique Oriented Perspective2016-11-19   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Credit card plays a very important rule in today's economy. It becomes an unavoidable part of household, business and global activities. Although using credit cards provides enormous benefits when used carefully and responsibly,significant credit and financial damages may be caused by fraudulent activities. Many techniques have been proposed to confront the growth in credit card fraud. However, all of these techniques have the same goal of avoiding the credit card fraud; each one has its own drawbacks, advantages and characteristics. In this paper, after investigating difficulties of credit card fraud detection, we seek to review the state of the art in credit card fraud detection techniques, data sets and evaluation criteria.The advantages and disadvantages of fraud detection methods are enumerated and compared.Furthermore, a classification of mentioned techniques into two main fraud detection approaches, namely, misuses (supervised) and anomaly detection (unsupervised) is presented. Again, a classification of techniques is proposed based on capability to process the numerical and categorical data sets. Different data sets used in literature are then described and grouped into real and synthesized data and the effective and common attributes are extracted for further usage.Moreover, evaluation employed criterions in literature are collected and discussed.Consequently, open issues for credit card fraud detection are explained as guidelines for new researchers.
Interleaved Sequence RNNs for Fraud Detection2020-06-17   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Payment card fraud causes multibillion dollar losses for banks and merchants worldwide, often fueling complex criminal activities. To address this, many real-time fraud detection systems use tree-based models, demanding complex feature engineering systems to efficiently enrich transactions with historical data while complying with millisecond-level latencies. In this work, we do not require those expensive features by using recurrent neural networks and treating payments as an interleaved sequence, where the history of each card is an unbounded, irregular sub-sequence. We present a complete RNN framework to detect fraud in real-time, proposing an efficient ML pipeline from preprocessing to deployment. We show that these feature-free, multi-sequence RNNs outperform state-of-the-art models saving millions of dollars in fraud detection and using fewer computational resources.
Modeling the Field Value Variations and Field Interactions Simultaneously for Fraud Detection2020-08-08   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
With the explosive growth of e-commerce, online transaction fraud has become one of the biggest challenges for e-commerce platforms. The historical behaviors of users provide rich information for digging into the users' fraud risk. While considerable efforts have been made in this direction, a long-standing challenge is how to effectively exploit internal user information and provide explainable prediction results. In fact, the value variations of same field from different events and the interactions of different fields inside one event have proven to be strong indicators for fraudulent behaviors. In this paper, we propose the Dual Importance-aware Factorization Machines (DIFM), which exploits the internal field information among users' behavior sequence from dual perspectives, i.e., field value variations and field interactions simultaneously for fraud detection. The proposed model is deployed in the risk management system of one of the world's largest e-commerce platforms, which utilize it to provide real-time transaction fraud detection. Experimental results on real industrial data from different regions in the platform clearly demonstrate that our model achieves significant improvements compared with various state-of-the-art baseline models. Moreover, the DIFM could also give an insight into the explanation of the prediction results from dual perspectives.
Detection of Anomalies in Large Scale Accounting Data using Deep Autoencoder Networks2018-08-01   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Learning to detect fraud in large-scale accounting data is one of the long-standing challenges in financial statement audits or fraud investigations. Nowadays, the majority of applied techniques refer to handcrafted rules derived from known fraud scenarios. While fairly successful, these rules exhibit the drawback that they often fail to generalize beyond known fraud scenarios and fraudsters gradually find ways to circumvent them. To overcome this disadvantage and inspired by the recent success of deep learning we propose the application of deep autoencoder neural networks to detect anomalous journal entries. We demonstrate that the trained network's reconstruction error obtainable for a journal entry and regularized by the entry's individual attribute probabilities can be interpreted as a highly adaptive anomaly assessment. Experiments on two real-world datasets of journal entries, show the effectiveness of the approach resulting in high f1-scores of 32.93 (dataset A) and 16.95 (dataset B) and less false positive alerts compared to state of the art baseline methods. Initial feedback received by chartered accountants and fraud examiners underpinned the quality of the approach in capturing highly relevant accounting anomalies.
Stacked Generalizations in Imbalanced Fraud Data Sets using Resampling Methods2020-04-03   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
This study uses stacked generalization, which is a two-step process of combining machine learning methods, called meta or super learners, for improving the performance of algorithms in step one (by minimizing the error rate of each individual algorithm to reduce its bias in the learning set) and then in step two inputting the results into the meta learner with its stacked blended output (demonstrating improved performance with the weakest algorithms learning better). The method is essentially an enhanced cross-validation strategy. Although the process uses great computational resources, the resulting performance metrics on resampled fraud data show that increased system cost can be justified. A fundamental key to fraud data is that it is inherently not systematic and, as of yet, the optimal resampling methodology has not been identified. Building a test harness that accounts for all permutations of algorithm sample set pairs demonstrates that the complex, intrinsic data structures are all thoroughly tested. Using a comparative analysis on fraud data that applies stacked generalizations provides useful insight needed to find the optimal mathematical formula to be used for imbalanced fraud data sets.
Enhancing Graph Neural Network-based Fraud Detectors against Camouflaged Fraudsters2020-08-19   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) have been widely applied to fraud detection problems in recent years, revealing the suspiciousness of nodes by aggregating their neighborhood information via different relations. However, few prior works have noticed the camouflage behavior of fraudsters, which could hamper the performance of GNN-based fraud detectors during the aggregation process. In this paper, we introduce two types of camouflages based on recent empirical studies, i.e., the feature camouflage and the relation camouflage. Existing GNNs have not addressed these two camouflages, which results in their poor performance in fraud detection problems. Alternatively, we propose a new model named CAmouflage-REsistant GNN (CARE-GNN), to enhance the GNN aggregation process with three unique modules against camouflages. Concretely, we first devise a label-aware similarity measure to find informative neighboring nodes. Then, we leverage reinforcement learning (RL) to find the optimal amounts of neighbors to be selected. Finally, the selected neighbors across different relations are aggregated together. Comprehensive experiments on two real-world fraud datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the RL algorithm. The proposed CARE-GNN also outperforms state-of-the-art GNNs and GNN-based fraud detectors. We integrate all GNN-based fraud detectors as an opensource toolbox: https://github.com/safe-graph/DGFraud. The CARE-GNN code and datasets are available at https://github.com/YingtongDou/CARE-GNN.
I call BS: Fraud Detection in Crowdfunding Campaigns2020-06-30   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Donations to charity-based crowdfunding environments have been on the rise in the last few years. Unsurprisingly, deception and fraud in such platforms have also increased, but have not been thoroughly studied to understand what characteristics can expose such behavior and allow its automatic detection and blocking. Indeed, crowdfunding platforms are the only ones typically performing oversight for the campaigns launched in each service. However, they are not properly incentivized to combat fraud among users and the campaigns they launch: on the one hand, a platform's revenue is directly proportional to the number of transactions performed (since the platform charges a fixed amount per donation); on the other hand, if a platform is transparent with respect to how much fraud it has, it may discourage potential donors from participating. In this paper, we take the first step in studying fraud in crowdfunding campaigns. We analyze data collected from different crowdfunding platforms, and annotate 700 campaigns as fraud or not. We compute various textual and image-based features and study their distributions and how they associate with campaign fraud. Using these attributes, we build machine learning classifiers, and show that it is possible to automatically classify such fraudulent behavior with up to 90.14% accuracy and 96.01% AUC, only using features available from the campaign's description at the moment of publication (i.e., with no user or money activity), making our method applicable for real-time operation on a user browser.
The Many Faces of Link Fraud2017-09-11   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Most past work on social network link fraud detection tries to separate genuine users from fraudsters, implicitly assuming that there is only one type of fraudulent behavior. But is this assumption true? And, in either case, what are the characteristics of such fraudulent behaviors? In this work, we set up honeypots ("dummy" social network accounts), and buy fake followers (after careful IRB approval). We report the signs of such behaviors including oddities in local network connectivity, account attributes, and similarities and differences across fraud providers. Most valuably, we discover and characterize several types of fraud behaviors. We discuss how to leverage our insights in practice by engineering strongly performing entropy-based features and demonstrating high classification accuracy. Our contributions are (a) instrumentation: we detail our experimental setup and carefully engineered data collection process to scrape Twitter data while respecting API rate-limits, (b) observations on fraud multimodality: we analyze our honeypot fraudster ecosystem and give surprising insights into the multifaceted behaviors of these fraudster types, and (c) features: we propose novel features that give strong (>0.95 precision/recall) discriminative power on ground-truth Twitter data.