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CONFIG: Controllable Neural Face Image Generation2020-05-12   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Our ability to sample realistic natural images, particularly faces, has advanced by leaps and bounds in recent years, yet our ability to exert fine-tuned control over the generative process has lagged behind. If this new technology is to find practical uses, we need to achieve a level of control over generative networks which, without sacrificing realism, is on par with that seen in computer graphics and character animation. To this end we propose ConfigNet, a neural face model that allows for controlling individual aspects of output images in semantically meaningful ways and that is a significant step on the path towards finely-controllable neural rendering. ConfigNet is trained on real face images as well as synthetic face renders. Our novel method uses synthetic data to factorize the latent space into elements that correspond to the inputs of a traditional rendering pipeline, separating aspects such as head pose, facial expression, hair style, illumination, and many others which are very hard to annotate in real data. The real images, which are presented to the network without labels, extend the variety of the generated images and encourage realism. Finally, we propose an evaluation criterion using an attribute detection network combined with a user study and demonstrate state-of-the-art individual control over attributes in the output images.
De-identification without losing faces2019-02-11   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Training of deep learning models for computer vision requires large image or video datasets from real world. Often, in collecting such datasets, we need to protect the privacy of the people captured in the images or videos, while still preserve the useful attributes such as facial expressions. In this work, we describe a new face de-identification method that can preserve essential facial attributes in the faces while concealing the identities. Our method takes advantage of the recent advances in face attribute transfer models, while maintaining a high visual quality. Instead of changing factors of the original faces or synthesizing faces completely, our method use a trained facial attribute transfer model to map non-identity related facial attributes to the face of donors, who are a small number (usually 2 to 3) of consented subjects. Using the donors' faces ensures that the natural appearance of the synthesized faces, while ensuring the identity of the synthesized faces are changed. On the other hand, the FATM blends the donors' facial attributes to those of the original faces to diversify the appearance of the synthesized faces. Experimental results on several sets of images and videos demonstrate the effectiveness of our face de-ID algorithm.
GIF: Generative Interpretable Faces2020-08-31   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Photo-realistic visualization and animation of expressive human faces have been a long standing challenge. On one end of the spectrum, 3D face modeling methods provide parametric control but tend to generate unrealistic images, while on the other end, generative 2D models like GANs (Generative Adversarial Networks) output photo-realistic face images, but lack explicit control. Recent methods gain partial control, either by attempting to disentangle different factors in an unsupervised manner, or by adding control post hoc to a pre-trained model. Trained GANs without pre-defined control, however, may entangle factors that are hard to undo later. To guarantee some disentanglement that provides us with desired kinds of control, we train our generative model conditioned on pre-defined control parameters. Specifically, we condition StyleGAN2 on FLAME, a generative 3D face model. However, we found out that a naive conditioning on FLAME parameters yields rather unsatisfactory results. Instead we render out geometry and photo-metric details of the FLAME mesh and use these for conditioning instead. This gives us a generative 2D face model named GIF (Generative Interpretable Faces) that shares FLAME's parametric control. Given FLAME parameters for shape, pose, and expressions, parameters for appearance and lighting, and an additional style vector, GIF outputs photo-realistic face images. To evaluate how well GIF follows its conditioning and the impact of different design choices, we perform a perceptual study. The code and trained model are publicly available for research purposes at https://github.com/ParthaEth/GIF.
VariTex: Variational Neural Face Textures2021-04-13   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Deep generative models have recently demonstrated the ability to synthesize photorealistic images of human faces with novel identities. A key challenge to the wide applicability of such techniques is to provide independent control over semantically meaningful parameters: appearance, head pose, face shape, and facial expressions. In this paper, we propose VariTex - to the best of our knowledge the first method that learns a variational latent feature space of neural face textures, which allows sampling of novel identities. We combine this generative model with a parametric face model and gain explicit control over head pose and facial expressions. To generate images of complete human heads, we propose an additive decoder that generates plausible additional details such as hair. A novel training scheme enforces a pose independent latent space and in consequence, allows learning of a one-to-many mapping between latent codes and pose-conditioned exterior regions. The resulting method can generate geometrically consistent images of novel identities allowing fine-grained control over head pose, face shape, and facial expressions, facilitating a broad range of downstream tasks, like sampling novel identities, re-posing, expression transfer, and more.
PrivacyNet: Semi-Adversarial Networks for Multi-attribute Face Privacy2020-02-13   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Recent research has established the possibility of deducing soft-biometric attributes such as age, gender and race from an individual's face image with high accuracy. However, this raises privacy concerns, especially when face images collected for biometric recognition purposes are used for attribute analysis without the person's consent. To address this problem, we develop a technique for imparting soft biometric privacy to face images via an image perturbation methodology. The image perturbation is undertaken using a GAN-based Semi-Adversarial Network (SAN) - referred to as PrivacyNet - that modifies an input face image such that it can be used by a face matcher for matching purposes but cannot be reliably used by an attribute classifier. Further, PrivacyNet allows a person to choose specific attributes that have to be obfuscated in the input face images (e.g., age and race), while allowing for other types of attributes to be extracted (e.g., gender). Extensive experiments using multiple face matchers, multiple age/gender/race classifiers, and multiple face datasets demonstrate the generalizability of the proposed multi-attribute privacy enhancing method across multiple face and attribute classifiers.
DeepPrivacy: A Generative Adversarial Network for Face Anonymization2019-09-10   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
We propose a novel architecture which is able to automatically anonymize faces in images while retaining the original data distribution. We ensure total anonymization of all faces in an image by generating images exclusively on privacy-safe information. Our model is based on a conditional generative adversarial network, generating images considering the original pose and image background. The conditional information enables us to generate highly realistic faces with a seamless transition between the generated face and the existing background. Furthermore, we introduce a diverse dataset of human faces, including unconventional poses, occluded faces, and a vast variability in backgrounds. Finally, we present experimental results reflecting the capability of our model to anonymize images while preserving the data distribution, making the data suitable for further training of deep learning models. As far as we know, no other solution has been proposed that guarantees the anonymization of faces while generating realistic images.
Attribute-Guided Face Generation Using Conditional CycleGAN2018-11-14   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
We are interested in attribute-guided face generation: given a low-res face input image, an attribute vector that can be extracted from a high-res image (attribute image), our new method generates a high-res face image for the low-res input that satisfies the given attributes. To address this problem, we condition the CycleGAN and propose conditional CycleGAN, which is designed to 1) handle unpaired training data because the training low/high-res and high-res attribute images may not necessarily align with each other, and to 2) allow easy control of the appearance of the generated face via the input attributes. We demonstrate impressive results on the attribute-guided conditional CycleGAN, which can synthesize realistic face images with appearance easily controlled by user-supplied attributes (e.g., gender, makeup, hair color, eyeglasses). Using the attribute image as identity to produce the corresponding conditional vector and by incorporating a face verification network, the attribute-guided network becomes the identity-guided conditional CycleGAN which produces impressive and interesting results on identity transfer. We demonstrate three applications on identity-guided conditional CycleGAN: identity-preserving face superresolution, face swapping, and frontal face generation, which consistently show the advantage of our new method.
DLGAN: Disentangling Label-Specific Fine-Grained Features for Image Manipulation2019-11-22   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Several recent studies have shown how disentangling images into content and feature spaces can provide controllable image translation/manipulation. In this paper, we propose a framework to enable utilizing discrete multi-labels to control which features to be disentangled,i.e., disentangling label-specific fine-grained features for image manipulation (dubbed DLGAN). By mapping the discrete label-specific attribute features into a continuous prior distribution, we enable leveraging the advantages of both discrete labels and reference images to achieve image manipulation in a hybrid fashion. For example, given a face image dataset (e.g., CelebA) with multiple discrete fine-grained labels, we can learn to smoothly interpolate a face image between black hair and blond hair through reference images while immediately control the gender and age through discrete input labels. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to realize such a hybrid manipulation within a single model. Qualitative and quantitative experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method
MorphGAN: One-Shot Face Synthesis GAN for Detecting Recognition Bias2020-12-10   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
To detect bias in face recognition networks, it can be useful to probe a network under test using samples in which only specific attributes vary in some controlled way. However, capturing a sufficiently large dataset with specific control over the attributes of interest is difficult. In this work, we describe a simulator that applies specific head pose and facial expression adjustments to images of previously unseen people. The simulator first fits a 3D morphable model to a provided image, applies the desired head pose and facial expression controls, then renders the model into an image. Next, a conditional Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) conditioned on the original image and the rendered morphable model is used to produce the image of the original person with the new facial expression and head pose. We call this conditional GAN -- MorphGAN. Images generated using MorphGAN conserve the identity of the person in the original image, and the provided control over head pose and facial expression allows test sets to be created to identify robustness issues of a facial recognition deep network with respect to pose and expression. Images generated by MorphGAN can also serve as data augmentation when training data are scarce. We show that by augmenting small datasets of faces with new poses and expressions improves the recognition performance by up to 9% depending on the augmentation and data scarcity.
Spoofing 2D Face Detection: Machines See People Who Aren't There2016-08-06   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Machine learning is increasingly used to make sense of the physical world yet may suffer from adversarial manipulation. We examine the Viola-Jones 2D face detection algorithm to study whether images can be created that humans do not notice as faces yet the algorithm detects as faces. We show that it is possible to construct images that Viola-Jones recognizes as containing faces yet no human would consider a face. Moreover, we show that it is possible to construct images that fool facial detection even when they are printed and then photographed.
Semi-Adversarial Networks: Convolutional Autoencoders for Imparting Privacy to Face Images2018-05-02   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
In this paper, we design and evaluate a convolutional autoencoder that perturbs an input face image to impart privacy to a subject. Specifically, the proposed autoencoder transforms an input face image such that the transformed image can be successfully used for face recognition but not for gender classification. In order to train this autoencoder, we propose a novel training scheme, referred to as semi-adversarial training in this work. The training is facilitated by attaching a semi-adversarial module consisting of a pseudo gender classifier and a pseudo face matcher to the autoencoder. The objective function utilized for training this network has three terms: one to ensure that the perturbed image is a realistic face image; another to ensure that the gender attributes of the face are confounded; and a third to ensure that biometric recognition performance due to the perturbed image is not impacted. Extensive experiments confirm the efficacy of the proposed architecture in extending gender privacy to face images.
APB2Face: Audio-guided face reenactment with auxiliary pose and blink signals2020-04-29   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Audio-guided face reenactment aims at generating photorealistic faces using audio information while maintaining the same facial movement as when speaking to a real person. However, existing methods can not generate vivid face images or only reenact low-resolution faces, which limits the application value. To solve those problems, we propose a novel deep neural network named APB2Face, which consists of GeometryPredictor and FaceReenactor modules. GeometryPredictor uses extra head pose and blink state signals as well as audio to predict the latent landmark geometry information, while FaceReenactor inputs the face landmark image to reenact the photorealistic face. A new dataset AnnVI collected from YouTube is presented to support the approach, and experimental results indicate the superiority of our method than state-of-the-arts, whether in authenticity or controllability.
FAME: Face Association through Model Evolution2014-07-10   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
We attack the problem of learning face models for public faces from weakly-labelled images collected from web through querying a name. The data is very noisy even after face detection, with several irrelevant faces corresponding to other people. We propose a novel method, Face Association through Model Evolution (FAME), that is able to prune the data in an iterative way, for the face models associated to a name to evolve. The idea is based on capturing discriminativeness and representativeness of each instance and eliminating the outliers. The final models are used to classify faces on novel datasets with possibly different characteristics. On benchmark datasets, our results are comparable to or better than state-of-the-art studies for the task of face identification.
Rotate-and-Render: Unsupervised Photorealistic Face Rotation from Single-View Images2020-03-18   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Though face rotation has achieved rapid progress in recent years, the lack of high-quality paired training data remains a great hurdle for existing methods. The current generative models heavily rely on datasets with multi-view images of the same person. Thus, their generated results are restricted by the scale and domain of the data source. To overcome these challenges, we propose a novel unsupervised framework that can synthesize photo-realistic rotated faces using only single-view image collections in the wild. Our key insight is that rotating faces in the 3D space back and forth, and re-rendering them to the 2D plane can serve as a strong self-supervision. We leverage the recent advances in 3D face modeling and high-resolution GAN to constitute our building blocks. Since the 3D rotation-and-render on faces can be applied to arbitrary angles without losing details, our approach is extremely suitable for in-the-wild scenarios (i.e. no paired data are available), where existing methods fall short. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our approach has superior synthesis quality as well as identity preservation over the state-of-the-art methods, across a wide range of poses and domains. Furthermore, we validate that our rotate-and-render framework naturally can act as an effective data augmentation engine for boosting modern face recognition systems even on strong baseline models.
Global-Local Face Upsampling Network2016-04-27   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Face hallucination, which is the task of generating a high-resolution face image from a low-resolution input image, is a well-studied problem that is useful in widespread application areas. Face hallucination is particularly challenging when the input face resolution is very low (e.g., 10 x 12 pixels) and/or the image is captured in an uncontrolled setting with large pose and illumination variations. In this paper, we revisit the algorithm introduced in [1] and present a deep interpretation of this framework that achieves state-of-the-art under such challenging scenarios. In our deep network architecture the global and local constraints that define a face can be efficiently modeled and learned end-to-end using training data. Conceptually our network design can be partitioned into two sub-networks: the first one implements the holistic face reconstruction according to global constraints, and the second one enhances face-specific details and enforces local patch statistics. We optimize the deep network using a new loss function for super-resolution that combines reconstruction error with a learned face quality measure in adversarial setting, producing improved visual results. We conduct extensive experiments in both controlled and uncontrolled setups and show that our algorithm improves the state of the art both numerically and visually.
Face representation by deep learning: a linear encoding in a parameter space?2019-10-22   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Recently, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have achieved tremendous performances on face recognition, and one popular perspective regarding CNNs' success is that CNNs could learn discriminative face representations from face images with complex image feature encoding. However, it is still unclear what is the intrinsic mechanism of face representation in CNNs. In this work, we investigate this problem by formulating face images as points in a shape-appearance parameter space, and our results demonstrate that: (i) The encoding and decoding of the neuron responses (representations) to face images in CNNs could be achieved under a linear model in the parameter space, in agreement with the recent discovery in primate IT face neurons, but different from the aforementioned perspective on CNNs' face representation with complex image feature encoding; (ii) The linear model for face encoding and decoding in the parameter space could achieve close or even better performances on face recognition and verification than state-of-the-art CNNs, which might provide new lights on the design strategies for face recognition systems; (iii) The neuron responses to face images in CNNs could not be adequately modelled by the axis model, a model recently proposed on face modelling in primate IT cortex. All these results might shed some lights on the often complained blackbox nature behind CNNs' tremendous performances on face recognition.
Face Deidentification with Generative Deep Neural Networks2017-07-28   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Face deidentification is an active topic amongst privacy and security researchers. Early deidentification methods relying on image blurring or pixelization were replaced in recent years with techniques based on formal anonymity models that provide privacy guaranties and at the same time aim at retaining certain characteristics of the data even after deidentification. The latter aspect is particularly important, as it allows to exploit the deidentified data in applications for which identity information is irrelevant. In this work we present a novel face deidentification pipeline, which ensures anonymity by synthesizing artificial surrogate faces using generative neural networks (GNNs). The generated faces are used to deidentify subjects in images or video, while preserving non-identity-related aspects of the data and consequently enabling data utilization. Since generative networks are very adaptive and can utilize a diverse set of parameters (pertaining to the appearance of the generated output in terms of facial expressions, gender, race, etc.), they represent a natural choice for the problem of face deidentification. To demonstrate the feasibility of our approach, we perform experiments using automated recognition tools and human annotators. Our results show that the recognition performance on deidentified images is close to chance, suggesting that the deidentification process based on GNNs is highly effective.
Attribute-Guided Sketch Generation2019-04-14   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Facial attributes are important since they provide a detailed description and determine the visual appearance of human faces. In this paper, we aim at converting a face image to a sketch while simultaneously generating facial attributes. To this end, we propose a novel Attribute-Guided Sketch Generative Adversarial Network (ASGAN) which is an end-to-end framework and contains two pairs of generators and discriminators, one of which is used to generate faces with attributes while the other one is employed for image-to-sketch translation. The two generators form a W-shaped network (W-net) and they are trained jointly with a weight-sharing constraint. Additionally, we also propose two novel discriminators, the residual one focusing on attribute generation and the triplex one helping to generate realistic looking sketches. To validate our model, we have created a new large dataset with 8,804 images, named the Attribute Face Photo & Sketch (AFPS) dataset which is the first dataset containing attributes associated to face sketch images. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed network (i) generates more photo-realistic faces with sharper facial attributes than baselines and (ii) has good generalization capability on different generative tasks.
Face Anti-Spoofing by Learning Polarization Cues in a Real-World Scenario2020-03-18   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
Face anti-spoofing is the key to preventing security breaches in biometric recognition applications. Existing software-based and hardware-based face liveness detection methods are effective in constrained environments or designated datasets only. Deep learning method using RGB and infrared images demands a large amount of training data for new attacks. In this paper, we present a face anti-spoofing method in a real-world scenario by automatic learning the physical characteristics in polarization images of a real face compared to a deceptive attack. A computational framework is developed to extract and classify the unique face features using convolutional neural networks and SVM together. Our real-time polarized face anti-spoofing (PAAS) detection method uses a on-chip integrated polarization imaging sensor with optimized processing algorithms. Extensive experiments demonstrate the advantages of the PAAS technique to counter diverse face spoofing attacks (print, replay, mask) in uncontrolled indoor and outdoor conditions by learning polarized face images of 33 people. A four-directional polarized face image dataset is released to inspire future applications within biometric anti-spoofing field.
Enhancing Photorealism Enhancement2021-05-10   ${\displaystyle \cong }$
We present an approach to enhancing the realism of synthetic images. The images are enhanced by a convolutional network that leverages intermediate representations produced by conventional rendering pipelines. The network is trained via a novel adversarial objective, which provides strong supervision at multiple perceptual levels. We analyze scene layout distributions in commonly used datasets and find that they differ in important ways. We hypothesize that this is one of the causes of strong artifacts that can be observed in the results of many prior methods. To address this we propose a new strategy for sampling image patches during training. We also introduce multiple architectural improvements in the deep network modules used for photorealism enhancement. We confirm the benefits of our contributions in controlled experiments and report substantial gains in stability and realism in comparison to recent image-to-image translation methods and a variety of other baselines.