RadixSpline: A Single-Pass Learned Index2020-05-22 ${\displaystyle \cong }$ |

Recent research has shown that learned models can outperform state-of-the-art index structures in size and lookup performance. While this is a very promising result, existing learned structures are often cumbersome to implement and are slow to build. In fact, most approaches that we are aware of require multiple training passes over the data. We introduce RadixSpline (RS), a learned index that can be built in a single pass over the data and is competitive with state-of-the-art learned index models, like RMI, in size and lookup performance. We evaluate RS using the SOSD benchmark and show that it achieves competitive results on all datasets, despite the fact that it only has two parameters. |

Attacking Recommender Systems with Augmented User Profiles2020-07-23 ${\displaystyle \cong }$ |

Recommendation Systems (RS) have become an essential part of many online services. Due to its pivotal role in guiding customers towards purchasing, there is a natural motivation for unscrupulous parties to spoof RS for profits. In this paper, we study the shilling attack: a subsistent and profitable attack where an adversarial party injects a number of user profiles to promote or demote a target item. Conventional shilling attack models are based on simple heuristics that can be easily detected, or directly adopt adversarial attack methods without a special design for RS. Moreover, the study on the attack impact on deep learning based RS is missing in the literature, making the effects of shilling attack against real RS doubtful. We present a novel Augmented Shilling Attack framework (AUSH) and implement it with the idea of Generative Adversarial Network. AUSH is capable of tailoring attacks against RS according to budget and complex attack goals, such as targeting a specific user group. We experimentally show that the attack impact of AUSH is noticeable on a wide range of RS including both classic and modern deep learning based RS, while it is virtually undetectable by the state-of-the-art attack detection model. |

Adaptive Initialization Method for K-means Algorithm2019-11-27 ${\displaystyle \cong }$ |

The K-means algorithm is a widely used clustering algorithm that offers simplicity and efficiency. However, the traditional K-means algorithm uses the random method to determine the initial cluster centers, which make clustering results prone to local optima and then result in worse clustering performance. Many initialization methods have been proposed, but none of them can dynamically adapt to datasets with various characteristics. In our previous research, an initialization method for K-means based on hybrid distance was proposed, and this algorithm can adapt to datasets with different characteristics. However, it has the following drawbacks: (a) When calculating density, the threshold cannot be uniquely determined, resulting in unstable results. (b) Heavily depending on adjusting the parameter, the parameter must be adjusted five times to obtain better clustering results. (c) The time complexity of the algorithm is quadratic, which is difficult to apply to large datasets. In the current paper, we proposed an adaptive initialization method for the K-means algorithm (AIMK) to improve our previous work. AIMK can not only adapt to datasets with various characteristics but also obtain better clustering results within two interactions. In addition, we then leverage random sampling in AIMK, which is named as AIMK-RS, to reduce the time complexity. AIMK-RS is easily applied to large and high-dimensional datasets. We compared AIMK and AIMK-RS with 10 different algorithms on 16 normal and six extra-large datasets. The experimental results show that AIMK and AIMK-RS outperform the current initialization methods and several well-known clustering algorithms. Furthermore, AIMK-RS can significantly reduce the complexity of applying it to extra-large datasets with high dimensions. The time complexity of AIMK-RS is O(n). |

Insta-RS: Instance-wise Randomized Smoothing for Improved Robustness and Accuracy2021-03-07 ${\displaystyle \cong }$ |

Randomized smoothing (RS) is an effective and scalable technique for constructing neural network classifiers that are certifiably robust to adversarial perturbations. Most RS works focus on training a good base model that boosts the certified robustness of the smoothed model. However, existing RS techniques treat every data point the same, i.e., the variance of the Gaussian noise used to form the smoothed model is preset and universal for all training and test data. This preset and universal Gaussian noise variance is suboptimal since different data points have different margins and the local properties of the base model vary across the input examples. In this paper, we examine the impact of customized handling of examples and propose Instance-wise Randomized Smoothing (Insta-RS) -- a multiple-start search algorithm that assigns customized Gaussian variances to test examples. We also design Insta-RS Train -- a novel two-stage training algorithm that adaptively adjusts and customizes the noise level of each training example for training a base model that boosts the certified robustness of the instance-wise Gaussian smoothed model. Through extensive experiments on CIFAR-10 and ImageNet, we show that our method significantly enhances the average certified radius (ACR) as well as the clean data accuracy compared to existing state-of-the-art provably robust classifiers. |

Recommender Systems Based on Generative Adversarial Networks: A Problem-Driven Perspective2020-03-05 ${\displaystyle \cong }$ |

Recommender systems (RS) play a very important role in various aspects of people's online life. Many companies leverage RS to help users discover new and favored items. Despite their empirical success, these systems still suffer from two main problems: data noise and data sparsity. In recent years, Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have received a surge of interests in many fields because of their great potential to learn complex real data distribution, and they also provide new means to mitigate the aforementioned problems of RS. Particularly, owing to adversarial learning, the problem of data noise can be handled by adding adversarial perturbations or forcing discriminators to tell the informative and uninformative data examples apart. As for the mitigation of data sparsity issue, the GAN-based models are able to replicate the real distribution of the user-item interactions and augment the available data. To gain a comprehensive understanding of these GAN-based recommendation models, we provide a retrospective of these studies and organize them from a problem-driven perspective. Specifically, we propose a taxonomy of these models, along with a detailed description of them and their advantages. Finally, we elaborate on several open issues and expand on current trends in the GAN-based RS. |

A learning-based algorithm to quickly compute good primal solutions for Stochastic Integer Programs2019-12-17 ${\displaystyle \cong }$ |

We propose a novel approach using supervised learning to obtain near-optimal primal solutions for two-stage stochastic integer programming (2SIP) problems with constraints in the first and second stages. The goal of the algorithm is to predict a "representative scenario" (RS) for the problem such that, deterministically solving the 2SIP with the random realization equal to the RS, gives a near-optimal solution to the original 2SIP. Predicting an RS, instead of directly predicting a solution ensures first-stage feasibility of the solution. If the problem is known to have complete recourse, second-stage feasibility is also guaranteed. For computational testing, we learn to find an RS for a two-stage stochastic facility location problem with integer variables and linear constraints in both stages and consistently provide near-optimal solutions. Our computing times are very competitive with those of general-purpose integer programming solvers to achieve a similar solution quality. |

Sparse-RS: a versatile framework for query-efficient sparse black-box adversarial attacks2020-06-23 ${\displaystyle \cong }$ |

A large body of research has focused on adversarial attacks which require to modify all input features with small $l_2$- or $l_\infty$-norms. In this paper we instead focus on query-efficient sparse attacks in the black-box setting. Our versatile framework, Sparse-RS, based on random search achieves state-of-the-art success rate and query efficiency for different sparse attack models such as $l_0$-bounded perturbations (outperforming established white-box methods), adversarial patches, and adversarial framing. We show the effectiveness of Sparse-RS on different datasets considering problems from image recognition and malware detection and multiple variations of sparse threat models, including targeted and universal perturbations. In particular Sparse-RS can be used for realistic attacks such as universal adversarial patch attacks without requiring a substitute model. The code of our framework is available at https://github.com/fra31/sparse-rs. |

Weighted Random Search for Hyperparameter Optimization2020-04-03 ${\displaystyle \cong }$ |

We introduce an improved version of Random Search (RS), used here for hyperparameter optimization of machine learning algorithms. Unlike the standard RS, which generates for each trial new values for all hyperparameters, we generate new values for each hyperparameter with a probability of change. The intuition behind our approach is that a value that already triggered a good result is a good candidate for the next step, and should be tested in new combinations of hyperparameter values. Within the same computational budget, our method yields better results than the standard RS. Our theoretical results prove this statement. We test our method on a variation of one of the most commonly used objective function for this class of problems (the Grievank function) and for the hyperparameter optimization of a deep learning CNN architecture. Our results can be generalized to any optimization problem defined on a discrete domain. |

SOSD: A Benchmark for Learned Indexes2019-11-29 ${\displaystyle \cong }$ |

A groundswell of recent work has focused on improving data management systems with learned components. Specifically, work on learned index structures has proposed replacing traditional index structures, such as B-trees, with learned models. Given the decades of research committed to improving index structures, there is significant skepticism about whether learned indexes actually outperform state-of-the-art implementations of traditional structures on real-world data. To answer this question, we propose a new benchmarking framework that comes with a variety of real-world datasets and baseline implementations to compare against. We also show preliminary results for selected index structures, and find that learned models indeed often outperform state-of-the-art implementations, and are therefore a promising direction for future research. |

Tsunami: A Learned Multi-dimensional Index for Correlated Data and Skewed Workloads2020-06-23 ${\displaystyle \cong }$ |

Filtering data based on predicates is one of the most fundamental operations for any modern data warehouse. Techniques to accelerate the execution of filter expressions include clustered indexes, specialized sort orders (e.g., Z-order), multi-dimensional indexes, and, for high selectivity queries, secondary indexes. However, these schemes are hard to tune and their performance is inconsistent. Recent work on learned multi-dimensional indexes has introduced the idea of automatically optimizing an index for a particular dataset and workload. However, the performance of that work suffers in the presence of correlated data and skewed query workloads, both of which are common in real applications. In this paper, we introduce Tsunami, which addresses these limitations to achieve up to 6X faster query performance and up to 8X smaller index size than existing learned multi-dimensional indexes, in addition to up to 11X faster query performance and 170X smaller index size than optimally-tuned traditional indexes. |

CARMI: A Cache-Aware Learned Index with a Cost-based Construction Algorithm2021-03-01 ${\displaystyle \cong }$ |

Learned indexes, which use machine learning models to replace traditional index structures, have shown promising results in recent studies. However, our understanding of this new type of index structure is still at an early stage with many details that need to be carefully examined and improved. In this paper, we propose a cache-aware learned index (CARMI) design to improve the efficiency of the Recursive Model Index (RMI) framework proposed by Kraska et al. and a cost-based construction algorithm to construct the optimal indexes in a wide variety of application scenarios. We formulate the problem of finding the optimal design of a learned index as an optimization problem and propose a dynamic programming algorithm for solving it and a partial greedy step to speed up. Experiments show that our index construction strategy can construct indexes with significantly better performance compared to baselines under various data distribution and workload requirements. Among them, CARMI can obtain an average of 2.52X speedup compared to B-tree, while using only about 0.56X memory space of B-tree on average. |

Adversarial Machine Learning in Recommender Systems: State of the art and Challenges2020-05-20 ${\displaystyle \cong }$ |

Latent-factor models (LFM) based on collaborative filtering (CF), such as matrix factorization (MF) and deep CF methods, are widely used in modern recommender systems (RS) due to their excellent performance and recommendation accuracy. Notwithstanding their great success, in recent years, it has been shown that these methods are vulnerable to adversarial examples, i.e., subtle but non-random perturbations designed to force recommendation models to produce erroneous outputs. The main reason for this behavior is that user interaction data used for training of LFM can be contaminated by malicious activities or users' misoperation that can induce an unpredictable amount of natural noise and harm recommendation outcomes. On the other side, it has been shown that these systems, conceived originally to attack machine learning applications, can be successfully adopted to strengthen their robustness against attacks as well as to train more precise recommendation engines. In this respect, the goal of this survey is two-fold: (i) to present recent advances on AML-RS for the security of RS (i.e., attacking and defense recommendation models), (ii) to show another successful application of AML in generative adversarial networks (GANs), which use the core concept of learning in AML (i.e., the min-max game) for generative applications. In this survey, we provide an exhaustive literature review of 60 articles published in major RS and ML journals and conferences. This review serves as a reference for the RS community, working on the security of RS and recommendation models leveraging generative models to improve their quality. |

Understanding the Importance of Single Directions via Representative Substitution2019-01-20 ${\displaystyle \cong }$ |

Understanding the internal representations of deep neural networks (DNNs) is crucal to explain their behavior. The interpretation of individual units, which are neurons in MLPs or convolution kernels in convolutional networks, has been paid much attention given their fundamental role. However, recent research (Morcos et al. 2018) presented a counterintuitive phenomenon, which suggests that an individual unit with high class selectivity, called interpretable units, has poor contributions to generalization of DNNs. In this work, we provide a new perspective to understand this counterintuitive phenomenon, which makes sense when we introduce Representative Substitution (RS). Instead of individually selective units with classes, the RS refers to the independence of a unit's representations in the same layer without any annotation. Our experiments demonstrate that interpretable units have high RS which are not critical to network's generalization. The RS provides new insights into the interpretation of DNNs and suggests that we need to focus on the independence and relationship of the representations. |

Learning to Shape Rewards using a Game of Switching Controls2021-03-16 ${\displaystyle \cong }$ |

Reward shaping (RS) is a powerful method in reinforcement learning (RL) for overcoming the problem of sparse and uninformative rewards. However, RS relies on manually engineered shaping-reward functions whose construction is typically time-consuming and error-prone. It also requires domain knowledge which runs contrary to the goal of autonomous learning. In this paper, we introduce an automated RS framework in which the shaping-reward function is constructed in a novel stochastic game between two agents. One agent learns both which states to add shaping rewards and their optimal magnitudes and the other agent learns the optimal policy for the task using the shaped rewards. We prove theoretically that our framework, which easily adopts existing RL algorithms, learns to construct a shaping-reward function that is tailored to the task and ensures convergence to higher performing policies for the given task. We demonstrate the superior performance of our method against state-of-the-art RS algorithms in Cartpole and the challenging console games Gravitar, Solaris and Super Mario. |

Utilizing remote sensing data in forest inventory sampling via Bayesian optimization2020-09-17 ${\displaystyle \cong }$ |

In large-area forest inventories a trade-off between the amount of data to be sampled and the costs of collecting the data is necessary. It is not always possible to have a very large data sample when dealing with sampling-based inventories. It is therefore necessary to optimize the sampling design in order to achieve optimal population parameter estimation. On the contrary, the availability of remote sensing (RS) data correlated with the forest inventory variables is usually much higher. The combination of RS and the sampled field measurement data is often used for improving the forest inventory parameter estimation. In addition, it is also reasonable to study the utilization of RS data in inventory sampling, which can further improve the estimation of forest variables. In this study, we propose a data sampling method based on Bayesian optimization which uses RS data in forest inventory sample selection. The presented method applies the learned functional relationship between the RS and inventory data in new sampling decisions. We evaluate our method by conducting simulated sampling experiments with both synthetic data and measured data from the Aland region in Finland. The proposed method is benchmarked against two baseline methods: simple random sampling and the local pivotal method. The results of the simulated experiments show the best results in terms of MSE values for the proposed method when the functional relationship between RS and inventory data is correctly learned from the available training data. |

Learning Recommendations While Influencing Interests2018-03-23 ${\displaystyle \cong }$ |

Personalized recommendation systems (RS) are extensively used in many services. Many of these are based on learning algorithms where the RS uses the recommendation history and the user response to learn an optimal strategy. Further, these algorithms are based on the assumption that the user interests are rigid. Specifically, they do not account for the effect of learning strategy on the evolution of the user interests. In this paper we develop influence models for a learning algorithm that is used to optimally recommend websites to web users. We adapt the model of \cite{Ioannidis10} to include an item-dependent reward to the RS from the suggestions that are accepted by the user. For this we first develop a static optimisation scheme when all the parameters are known. Next we develop a stochastic approximation based learning scheme for the RS to learn the optimal strategy when the user profiles are not known. Finally, we describe several user-influence models for the learning algorithm and analyze their effect on the steady user interests and on the steady state optimal strategy as compared to that when the users are not influenced. |

Three dimensional Deep Learning approach for remote sensing image classification2018-06-15 ${\displaystyle \cong }$ |

Recently, a variety of approaches has been enriching the field of Remote Sensing (RS) image processing and analysis. Unfortunately, existing methods remain limited faced to the rich spatio-spectral content of today's large datasets. It would seem intriguing to resort to Deep Learning (DL) based approaches at this stage with regards to their ability to offer accurate semantic interpretation of the data. However, the specificity introduced by the coexistence of spectral and spatial content in the RS datasets widens the scope of the challenges presented to adapt DL methods to these contexts. Therefore, the aim of this paper is firstly to explore the performance of DL architectures for the RS hyperspectral dataset classification and secondly to introduce a new three-dimensional DL approach that enables a joint spectral and spatial information process. A set of three-dimensional schemes is proposed and evaluated. Experimental results based on well knownhyperspectral datasets demonstrate that the proposed method is able to achieve a better classification rate than state of the art methods with lower computational costs. |

MGML: Multi-Granularity Multi-Level Feature Ensemble Network for Remote Sensing Scene Classification2020-12-28 ${\displaystyle \cong }$ |

Remote sensing (RS) scene classification is a challenging task to predict scene categories of RS images. RS images have two main characters: large intra-class variance caused by large resolution variance and confusing information from large geographic covering area. To ease the negative influence from the above two characters. We propose a Multi-granularity Multi-Level Feature Ensemble Network (MGML-FENet) to efficiently tackle RS scene classification task in this paper. Specifically, we propose Multi-granularity Multi-Level Feature Fusion Branch (MGML-FFB) to extract multi-granularity features in different levels of network by channel-separate feature generator (CS-FG). To avoid the interference from confusing information, we propose Multi-granularity Multi-Level Feature Ensemble Module (MGML-FEM) which can provide diverse predictions by full-channel feature generator (FC-FG). Compared to previous methods, our proposed networks have ability to use structure information and abundant fine-grained features. Furthermore, through ensemble learning method, our proposed MGML-FENets can obtain more convincing final predictions. Extensive classification experiments on multiple RS datasets (AID, NWPU-RESISC45, UC-Merced and VGoogle) demonstrate that our proposed networks achieve better performance than previous state-of-the-art (SOTA) networks. The visualization analysis also shows the good interpretability of MGML-FENet. |

Online Robustness Training for Deep Reinforcement Learning2019-11-22 ${\displaystyle \cong }$ |

In deep reinforcement learning (RL), adversarial attacks can trick an agent into unwanted states and disrupt training. We propose a system called Robust Student-DQN (RS-DQN), which permits online robustness training alongside Q networks, while preserving competitive performance. We show that RS-DQN can be combined with (i) state-of-the-art adversarial training and (ii) provably robust training to obtain an agent that is resilient to strong attacks during training and evaluation. |

Variational Auto-encoder for Recommender Systems with Exploration-Exploitation2020-06-10 ${\displaystyle \cong }$ |

Variational auto-encoder (VAE) is an efficient non-linear latent factor model that has been widely applied in recommender systems (RS). However, a drawback of VAE for RS is their inability of exploration. A good RS is expected to recommend items that are known to enjoy and items that are novel to try. In this work, we introduce an exploitation-exploration motivated VAE (XploVAE) to collaborative filtering. To facilitate personalized recommendations, we construct user-specific subgraphs, which contain the first-order proximity capturing observed user-item interactions for exploitation and the higher-order proximity for exploration. We further develop a hierarchical latent space model to learn the population distribution of the user subgraphs, and learn the personalized item embedding. Empirical experiments prove the effectiveness of our proposed method on various real-world data sets. |