10,16,2021

 Photo-Guided Exploration of Volume Data Features2017-10-18   ${\displaystyle \cong }$ In this work, we pose the question of whether, by considering qualitative information such as a sample target image as input, one can produce a rendered image of scientific data that is similar to the target. The algorithm resulting from our research allows one to ask the question of whether features like those in the target image exists in a given dataset. In that way, our method is one of imagery query or reverse engineering, as opposed to manual parameter tweaking of the full visualization pipeline. For target images, we can use real-world photographs of physical phenomena. Our method leverages deep neural networks and evolutionary optimization. Using a trained similarity function that measures the difference between renderings of a phenomenon and real-world photographs, our method optimizes rendering parameters. We demonstrate the efficacy of our method using a superstorm simulation dataset and images found online. We also discuss a parallel implementation of our method, which was run on NCSA's Blue Waters. Learning image quality assessment by reinforcing task amenable data selection2021-02-15   ${\displaystyle \cong }$ In this paper, we consider a type of image quality assessment as a task-specific measurement, which can be used to select images that are more amenable to a given target task, such as image classification or segmentation. We propose to train simultaneously two neural networks for image selection and a target task using reinforcement learning. A controller network learns an image selection policy by maximising an accumulated reward based on the target task performance on the controller-selected validation set, whilst the target task predictor is optimised using the training set. The trained controller is therefore able to reject those images that lead to poor accuracy in the target task. In this work, we show that the controller-predicted image quality can be significantly different from the task-specific image quality labels that are manually defined by humans. Furthermore, we demonstrate that it is possible to learn effective image quality assessment without using a clean'' validation set, thereby avoiding the requirement for human labelling of images with respect to their amenability for the task. Using $6712$, labelled and segmented, clinical ultrasound images from $259$ patients, experimental results on holdout data show that the proposed image quality assessment achieved a mean classification accuracy of $0.94\pm0.01$ and a mean segmentation Dice of $0.89\pm0.02$, by discarding $5\%$ and $15\%$ of the acquired images, respectively. The significantly improved performance was observed for both tested tasks, compared with the respective $0.90\pm0.01$ and $0.82\pm0.02$ from networks without considering task amenability. This enables image quality feedback during real-time ultrasound acquisition among many other medical imaging applications. Learning Adaptive Sampling and Reconstruction for Volume Visualization2020-07-20   ${\displaystyle \cong }$ A central challenge in data visualization is to understand which data samples are required to generate an image of a data set in which the relevant information is encoded. In this work, we make a first step towards answering the question of whether an artificial neural network can predict where to sample the data with higher or lower density, by learning of correspondences between the data, the sampling patterns and the generated images. We introduce a novel neural rendering pipeline, which is trained end-to-end to generate a sparse adaptive sampling structure from a given low-resolution input image, and reconstructs a high-resolution image from the sparse set of samples. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, we demonstrate that the selection of structures that are relevant for the final visual representation can be jointly learned together with the reconstruction of this representation from these structures. Therefore, we introduce differentiable sampling and reconstruction stages, which can leverage back-propagation based on supervised losses solely on the final image. We shed light on the adaptive sampling patterns generated by the network pipeline and analyze its use for volume visualization including isosurface and direct volume rendering. Deep Single Image Manipulation2020-07-02   ${\displaystyle \cong }$ Image manipulation has attracted much research over the years due to the popularity and commercial importance of the task. In recent years, deep neural network methods have been proposed for many image manipulation tasks. A major issue with deep methods is the need to train on large amounts of data from the same distribution as the target image, whereas collecting datasets encompassing the entire long-tail of images is impossible. In this paper, we demonstrate that simply training a conditional adversarial generator on the single target image is sufficient for performing complex image manipulations. We find that the key for enabling single image training is extensive augmentation of the input image and provide a novel augmentation method. Our network learns to map between a primitive representation of the image (e.g. edges) to the image itself. At manipulation time, our generator allows for making general image changes by modifying the primitive input representation and mapping it through the network. We extensively evaluate our method and find that it provides remarkable performance. Cut-and-Paste Neural Rendering2020-10-12   ${\displaystyle \cong }$ Cut-and-paste methods take an object from one image and insert it into another. Doing so often results in unrealistic looking images because the inserted object's shading is inconsistent with the target scene's shading. Existing reshading methods require a geometric and physical model of the inserted object, which is then rendered using environment parameters. Accurately constructing such a model only from a single image is beyond the current understanding of computer vision. We describe an alternative procedure -- cut-and-paste neural rendering, to render the inserted fragment's shading field consistent with the target scene. We use a Deep Image Prior (DIP) as a neural renderer trained to render an image with consistent image decomposition inferences. The resulting rendering from DIP should have an albedo consistent with composite albedo; it should have a shading field that, outside the inserted fragment, is the same as the target scene's shading field; and composite surface normals are consistent with the final rendering's shading field. The result is a simple procedure that produces convincing and realistic shading. Moreover, our procedure does not require rendered images or image-decomposition from real images in the training or labeled annotations. In fact, our only use of simulated ground truth is our use of a pre-trained normal estimator. Qualitative results are strong, supported by a user study comparing against the state-of-the-art image harmonization baseline. Exemplary Natural Images Explain CNN Activations Better than Feature Visualizations2020-10-23   ${\displaystyle \cong }$ Feature visualizations such as synthetic maximally activating images are a widely used explanation method to better understand the information processing of convolutional neural networks (CNNs). At the same time, there are concerns that these visualizations might not accurately represent CNNs' inner workings. Here, we measure how much extremely activating images help humans to predict CNN activations. Using a well-controlled psychophysical paradigm, we compare the informativeness of synthetic images (Olah et al., 2017) with a simple baseline visualization, namely exemplary natural images that also strongly activate a specific feature map. Given either synthetic or natural reference images, human participants choose which of two query images leads to strong positive activation. The experiment is designed to maximize participants' performance, and is the first to probe intermediate instead of final layer representations. We find that synthetic images indeed provide helpful information about feature map activations (82% accuracy; chance would be 50%). However, natural images-originally intended to be a baseline-outperform synthetic images by a wide margin (92% accuracy). Additionally, participants are faster and more confident for natural images, whereas subjective impressions about the interpretability of feature visualization are mixed. The higher informativeness of natural images holds across most layers, for both expert and lay participants as well as for hand- and randomly-picked feature visualizations. Even if only a single reference image is given, synthetic images provide less information than natural images (65% vs. 73%). In summary, popular synthetic images from feature visualizations are significantly less informative for assessing CNN activations than natural images. We argue that future visualization methods should improve over this simple baseline. Adversarial Manipulation of Deep Representations2016-03-04   ${\displaystyle \cong }$ We show that the representation of an image in a deep neural network (DNN) can be manipulated to mimic those of other natural images, with only minor, imperceptible perturbations to the original image. Previous methods for generating adversarial images focused on image perturbations designed to produce erroneous class labels, while we concentrate on the internal layers of DNN representations. In this way our new class of adversarial images differs qualitatively from others. While the adversary is perceptually similar to one image, its internal representation appears remarkably similar to a different image, one from a different class, bearing little if any apparent similarity to the input; they appear generic and consistent with the space of natural images. This phenomenon raises questions about DNN representations, as well as the properties of natural images themselves. Sequential Neural Rendering with Transformer2020-04-09   ${\displaystyle \cong }$ This paper address the problem of novel view synthesis by means of neural rendering, where we are interested in predicting the novel view at an arbitrary camera pose based on a given set of input images from other viewpoints. Using the known query pose and input poses, we create an ordered set of observations that leads to the target view. Thus, the problem of single novel view synthesis is reformulated as a sequential view prediction task. In this paper, the proposed Transformer-based Generative Query Network (T-GQN) extends the neural-rendering methods by adding two new concepts. First, we use multi-view attention learning between context images to obtain multiple implicit scene representations. Second, we introduce a sequential rendering decoder to predict an image sequence, including the target view, based on the learned representations. We evaluate our model on various challenging synthetic datasets and demonstrate that our model can give consistent predictions and achieve faster training convergence than the former architectures. Deep Multimodal Transfer-Learned Regression in Data-Poor Domains2020-06-16   ${\displaystyle \cong }$ In many real-world applications of deep learning, estimation of a target may rely on various types of input data modes, such as audio-video, image-text, etc. This task can be further complicated by a lack of sufficient data. Here we propose a Deep Multimodal Transfer-Learned Regressor (DMTL-R) for multimodal learning of image and feature data in a deep regression architecture effective at predicting target parameters in data-poor domains. Our model is capable of fine-tuning a given set of pre-trained CNN weights on a small amount of training image data, while simultaneously conditioning on feature information from a complimentary data mode during network training, yielding more accurate single-target or multi-target regression than can be achieved using the images or the features alone. We present results using phase-field simulation microstructure images with an accompanying set of physical features, using pre-trained weights from various well-known CNN architectures, which demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed multimodal approach. Improved Visual Localization via Graph Smoothing2019-11-07   ${\displaystyle \cong }$ Vision based localization is the problem of inferring the pose of the camera given a single image. One solution to this problem is to learn a deep neural network to infer the pose of a query image after learning on a dataset of images with known poses. Another more commonly used approach rely on image retrieval where the query image is compared against the database of images and its pose is inferred with the help of the retrieved images. The latter approach assumes that images taken from the same places consists of the same landmarks and, thus would have similar feature representations. These representation can be learned using full supervision to be robust to different variations in capture conditions like time of the day and weather. In this work, we introduce a framework to enhance the performance of these retrieval based localization methods by taking into account the additional information including GPS coordinates and temporal neighbourhood of the images provided by the acquisition process in addition to the descriptor similarity of pairs of images in the reference or query database which is used traditionally for localization. Our method constructs a graph based on this additional information and use it for robust retrieval by smoothing the feature representation of reference and/or query images. We show that the proposed method is able to significantly improve the localization accuracy on two large scale datasets over the baselines. Distribution Matching Losses Can Hallucinate Features in Medical Image Translation2018-10-03   ${\displaystyle \cong }$ This paper discusses how distribution matching losses, such as those used in CycleGAN, when used to synthesize medical images can lead to mis-diagnosis of medical conditions. It seems appealing to use these new image synthesis methods for translating images from a source to a target domain because they can produce high quality images and some even do not require paired data. However, the basis of how these image translation models work is through matching the translation output to the distribution of the target domain. This can cause an issue when the data provided in the target domain has an over or under representation of some classes (e.g. healthy or sick). When the output of an algorithm is a transformed image there are uncertainties whether all known and unknown class labels have been preserved or changed. Therefore, we recommend that these translated images should not be used for direct interpretation (e.g. by doctors) because they may lead to misdiagnosis of patients based on hallucinated image features by an algorithm that matches a distribution. However there are many recent papers that seem as though this is the goal. Object-Level Representation Learning for Few-Shot Image Classification2018-05-28   ${\displaystyle \cong }$ Few-shot learning that trains image classifiers over few labeled examples per category is a challenging task. In this paper, we propose to exploit an additional big dataset with different categories to improve the accuracy of few-shot learning over our target dataset. Our approach is based on the observation that images can be decomposed into objects, which may appear in images from both the additional dataset and our target dataset. We use the object-level relation learned from the additional dataset to infer the similarity of images in our target dataset with unseen categories. Nearest neighbor search is applied to do image classification, which is a non-parametric model and thus does not need fine-tuning. We evaluate our algorithm on two popular datasets, namely Omniglot and MiniImagenet. We obtain 8.5\% and 2.7\% absolute improvements for 5-way 1-shot and 5-way 5-shot experiments on MiniImagenet, respectively. Source code will be published upon acceptance. High-Resolution Daytime Translation Without Domain Labels2020-03-23   ${\displaystyle \cong }$ Modeling daytime changes in high resolution photographs, e.g., re-rendering the same scene under different illuminations typical for day, night, or dawn, is a challenging image manipulation task. We present the high-resolution daytime translation (HiDT) model for this task. HiDT combines a generative image-to-image model and a new upsampling scheme that allows to apply image translation at high resolution. The model demonstrates competitive results in terms of both commonly used GAN metrics and human evaluation. Importantly, this good performance comes as a result of training on a dataset of still landscape images with no daytime labels available. Our results are available at https://saic-mdal.github.io/HiDT/. Synthetic Sample Selection via Reinforcement Learning2020-08-25   ${\displaystyle \cong }$ Synthesizing realistic medical images provides a feasible solution to the shortage of training data in deep learning based medical image recognition systems. However, the quality control of synthetic images for data augmentation purposes is under-investigated, and some of the generated images are not realistic and may contain misleading features that distort data distribution when mixed with real images. Thus, the effectiveness of those synthetic images in medical image recognition systems cannot be guaranteed when they are being added randomly without quality assurance. In this work, we propose a reinforcement learning (RL) based synthetic sample selection method that learns to choose synthetic images containing reliable and informative features. A transformer based controller is trained via proximal policy optimization (PPO) using the validation classification accuracy as the reward. The selected images are mixed with the original training data for improved training of image recognition systems. To validate our method, we take the pathology image recognition as an example and conduct extensive experiments on two histopathology image datasets. In experiments on a cervical dataset and a lymph node dataset, the image classification performance is improved by 8.1% and 2.3%, respectively, when utilizing high-quality synthetic images selected by our RL framework. Our proposed synthetic sample selection method is general and has great potential to boost the performance of various medical image recognition systems given limited annotation. MUTE: Data-Similarity Driven Multi-hot Target Encoding for Neural Network Design2019-10-15   ${\displaystyle \cong }$ Target encoding is an effective technique to deliver better performance for conventional machine learning methods, and recently, for deep neural networks as well. However, the existing target encoding approaches require significant increase in the learning capacity, thus demand higher computation power and more training data. In this paper, we present a novel and efficient target encoding scheme, MUTE to improve both generalizability and robustness of a target model by understanding the inter-class characteristics of a target dataset. By extracting the confusion level between the target classes in a dataset, MUTE strategically optimizes the Hamming distances among target encoding. Such optimized target encoding offers higher classification strength for neural network models with negligible computation overhead and without increasing the model size. When MUTE is applied to the popular image classification networks and datasets, our experimental results show that MUTE offers better generalization and defense against the noises and adversarial attacks over the existing solutions. TBC-Net: A real-time detector for infrared small target detection using semantic constraint2019-12-27   ${\displaystyle \cong }$ Infrared small target detection is a key technique in infrared search and tracking (IRST) systems. Although deep learning has been widely used in the vision tasks of visible light images recently, it is rarely used in infrared small target detection due to the difficulty in learning small target features. In this paper, we propose a novel lightweight convolutional neural network TBC-Net for infrared small target detection. The TBCNet consists of a target extraction module (TEM) and a semantic constraint module (SCM), which are used to extract small targets from infrared images and to classify the extracted target images during the training, respectively. Meanwhile, we propose a joint loss function and a training method. The SCM imposes a semantic constraint on TEM by combining the high-level classification task and solve the problem of the difficulty to learn features caused by class imbalance problem. During the training, the targets are extracted from the input image and then be classified by SCM. During the inference, only the TEM is used to detect the small targets. We also propose a data synthesis method to generate training data. The experimental results show that compared with the traditional methods, TBC-Net can better reduce the false alarm caused by complicated background, the proposed network structure and joint loss have a significant improvement on small target feature learning. Besides, TBC-Net can achieve real-time detection on the NVIDIA Jetson AGX Xavier development board, which is suitable for applications such as field research with drones equipped with infrared sensors. Image-based model parameter optimization using Model-Assisted Generative Adversarial Networks2020-03-12   ${\displaystyle \cong }$ We propose and demonstrate the use of a model-assisted generative adversarial network (GAN) to produce fake images that accurately match true images through the variation of the parameters of the model that describes the features of the images. The generator learns the model parameter values that produce fake images that best match the true images. Two case studies show excellent agreement between the generated best match parameters and the true parameters. The best match model parameter values can be used to retune the default simulation to minimize any bias when applying image recognition techniques to fake and true images. In the case of a real-world experiment, the true images are experimental data with unknown true model parameter values, and the fake images are produced by a simulation that takes the model parameters as input. The model-assisted GAN uses a convolutional neural network to emulate the simulation for all parameter values that, when trained, can be used as a conditional generator for fast fake-image production. Learning Loss for Active Learning2019-05-09   ${\displaystyle \cong }$ The performance of deep neural networks improves with more annotated data. The problem is that the budget for annotation is limited. One solution to this is active learning, where a model asks human to annotate data that it perceived as uncertain. A variety of recent methods have been proposed to apply active learning to deep networks but most of them are either designed specific for their target tasks or computationally inefficient for large networks. In this paper, we propose a novel active learning method that is simple but task-agnostic, and works efficiently with the deep networks. We attach a small parametric module, named "loss prediction module," to a target network, and learn it to predict target losses of unlabeled inputs. Then, this module can suggest data that the target model is likely to produce a wrong prediction. This method is task-agnostic as networks are learned from a single loss regardless of target tasks. We rigorously validate our method through image classification, object detection, and human pose estimation, with the recent network architectures. The results demonstrate that our method consistently outperforms the previous methods over the tasks. Survey: Machine Learning in Production Rendering2020-05-26   ${\displaystyle \cong }$ In the past few years, machine learning-based approaches have had some great success for rendering animated feature films. This survey summarizes several of the most dramatic improvements in using deep neural networks over traditional rendering methods, such as better image quality and lower computational overhead. More specifically, this survey covers the fundamental principles of machine learning and its applications, such as denoising, path guiding, rendering participating media, and other notoriously difficult light transport situations. Some of these techniques have already been used in the latest released animations while others are still in the continuing development by researchers in both academia and movie studios. Although learning-based rendering methods still have some open issues, they have already demonstrated promising performance in multiple parts of the rendering pipeline, and people are continuously making new attempts. AiRound and CV-BrCT: Novel Multi-View Datasets for Scene Classification2020-08-03   ${\displaystyle \cong }$ It is undeniable that aerial/satellite images can provide useful information for a large variety of tasks. But, since these images are always looking from above, some applications can benefit from complementary information provided by other perspective views of the scene, such as ground-level images. Despite a large number of public repositories for both georeferenced photographs and aerial images, there is a lack of benchmark datasets that allow the development of approaches that exploit the benefits and complementarity of aerial/ground imagery. In this paper, we present two new publicly available datasets named \thedataset~and CV-BrCT. The first one contains triplets of images from the same geographic coordinate with different perspectives of view extracted from various places around the world. Each triplet is composed of an aerial RGB image, a ground-level perspective image, and a Sentinel-2 sample. The second dataset contains pairs of aerial and street-level images extracted from southeast Brazil. We design an extensive set of experiments concerning multi-view scene classification, using early and late fusion. Such experiments were conducted to show that image classification can be enhanced using multi-view data.